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Najslj&ilie, QUnit.: 




Preface Page v 


Babylonian empire— Medo-Persian empire — Grecian 
or Macedonian empire — Roman empire — Ten toes and 
■ ten horns — Little horn — Iron and clay — Reconstruc- 
tion of the Roman empire 7 


The closing symbols in the visions agree — The mount- 
ain with the Ancient of days — The stone with the 
one like the Son of man — The text — Bishop Newton — 
Civil governments — Tenor of the visions — Necessi- 
ties of the case — The Ancient of days not God in 
person, in nature, in revelation, in providence, but 
in government — Stone not the Church — Date — 
Baldwin — Conflict with despotism ; from without ; 
sudden — Takes the place of the despotism it destroys 
— Called a "kingdom" — Dr. Clarke's exposition — Dr. 
Baldwin's — Haimonyof the visions 23 


The mountain and the Ancient identified with the 
mountain of the Lord's house, or Israel restn^^ , 
The typical system — The church— "" 


restored not spiritually — not literally — but in the 
antitype Page 42 


The Fifth Kingdom the United States — Proofs presump- 
tive and direct — United States probably in prophecy 
• — Her extent, growth, power, a Free Nationality — 
Date of. the Fifth Power — Judges — The Little Horn 
— Outside the Roman Empire 53 


The closing symbols represent the Confederate States 
— The stone cut out of the mountain — without 
hands — Isa. lxvi. 7, 8. — Isa. ii., iii., iv. — The moun- 
tain of the house of the Lord — The trouble of Zion 
— The seven women — Micah iv., v. — The mountain 
of the house — The remnant — The first dominion — 
The birth of the Savior — Birth of the man child — 
Seven shepherds, and eight principal men — The 
war 80 


Zechariah's prophecies — Division of the Union,^— Bor- 
der States as the slain shepherds — The eleven States 
as "the third" — The divided mountain — Ezek. xxsiv. 
— The gathered flock judged and divided — Isa. lxv. 
11—16 — The Northern Army— 'The American Flag — 
Division — Contrast — One like the Son of man — 
Character of the government — How established — 
When it appears 108 

\> v •* vV v v ♦ 

This little book contains no adequate discus- 
sion of the subject of which it treats, but rather 
an exposition of the grand prophetic visions re- 
corded in Dan. ii. and vii., as corroborated and 
explained by other prophecies of the Old Testa- 
ment Scriptures. Our object has been, in dis- 
coursing and lecturing during a hurried and 
laborious tour through the Confederate States, 
and is now, in the publication of this little work, 
to call attention to the subject, and, if not to con- 
vince, at least induce a more careful examination 
of the prophecies, and prepare the mind for such 
manifestations of the truth, as Providence may 
furnish in the events of the future. 

It may be thought that too much space is oc- 
cupied with the United States in prophecy; but 
there is such an intimate connection between the 
fifth and sixth symbols in the visions, as to ren- 
der the clear identification of the fifth essential. 

It is hardly necessary to acknowledge indebted- 
ness to Dr. Baldwin, as to this depar*— ' *" 
view of the reference., ** — potations from 


his book, to be found in the discussion itself, 
though we have endeavored to extend and 
strengthen the argument. We differ with him, 
as the reader will see, in the application of the 
symbols. We have endeavored to show that the 
United States were not only "the Ancient of 
days," but also "the mountain." When this is 
fully made out, the identification of the Confed- 
erate States as the sixth power, or the stone cut 
out of the mountain, is easy, and even necessary. 
The book is given to the public, not because 
an ingenious theory could be framed suitable to 
thi prejudices and wishes of our people, but be- 
cause we believe these things to be true, and 
that if true they ought to be understood. 

The work has been, under the pressure of cir- 
cumstances, hastily written and passed through 
the press, and is not as thorough in some of its 
discussions, or as perspicuous in style, as could be 
desired. For its blemishes and defects, the 
reader's indulgence is craved. It is given to 
the public with the earnest prayer that the Di- 
vine blessing may be upon it, as an humble at- 
tempt to unfold his providence and his Word. 

Nashville, October 1, 186.1. 


(tonfetate States m |!r0pjjtqr 



Babylonian empire — Medo-Persian empire — Grecian 
or Macedonian empire — Roman empire — Ten toes and 
ten horns — Little horn — Iron and clay — Reconstruc- 
tion of the Roman empire. 

The vision of Nebuchadnezzar, and the first 
of Daniel's visions, recorded respectively in the 
second and seventh chapters of the book of Daniel, 
furnish, it is believed, the key to the leading na- 
tional and political prophecies, both of the Old 
and New Testament Scriptures. 

The identity in meaning of these visions is en- 
tirely apparent. Dr. Clarke says of the first vision 
of Daniel, " This dream is the same in meaning, 
under different emblems, as that of Nebuchad- 
nezzar's metallic image ; but in Daniel's dream 
several circumstances are added." Scott also 

declares, "It contains for ; substa^g^aezaar's 
prophetical intimati^-- "~ /y\ 


dream, but under different allusions, and with 
many additional circumstances." Bishop Newton 
says, "What was revealed unto Nebuchadnezzar 
in the second year of his reign concerning the 
four great empires of the world, was again re- 
vealed unto Daniel, (chap, vii.,) with some en- 
largements and additions, in the first year of 
Belshazzar, that is, about eight and forty years 
afterwards." This identity will more fully ap- 
pear as we proceed in the investigation. 

We invite attention to these four great succes- 
sive empires, in the order in which they appear 
in the visions. In Nebuchadnezzar's vision they 
are represented as a great metallic image, consist- 
ing of four sections; in Daniel's vision, as four 
successive beasts. 


The description is thus: "This image's head 
was of fine gold." (ii. 32. ) " The first (beast) was 
like a lion, and had eagle's wings; and I beheld 
till the wings were plucked, and it was made to 
stand upon the feet as a man, and a man's heart 
was given to it. (vii. 4.) That these symbols 
represent the empire of Babylon all interpreters 
^" -"vnhecy agree. This is, indeed, positively 
fixed by the pi ^ ,, wh0j address i n o. Nebuchad- 


nezzar as king of Babylon, says, "Thou art this 
head of gold." The head of gold, the likeness 
to a 'lion, the king of beasts, with wings of an 
eagle, the king of birds, signify the wealth and 
glorj of this monarchy. The "eagle's wings" 
d.enote r ap idity of conquest, together with the 
addition oi ot her governments to the central one, 
and thus th» f orma tion of an extended empire 
"The wings * ere pl ucked , and it was lifted up 
from the earth," OT) as Grotius ^ r '~-— *"> lliC 
wings thereof we^ plucked, wherewith it was 
lifted up from the ea^" denoting cessation of 
conquests, together with +,he loss of some already 
made, as Lydia, Media, and Persia, and general 
diminution of national territory and strength, 
until the empire was overthrown by the Medes 
and Persians. The pride of Nebuchadnezzar was 
humbled, and the people became, after their con- 
quests were over, rather after the fall of the em- 
pire, more humane ; which may be signified ac- 
cording to Newton, by the phrase "a man's heart 
was given unto it." (Verse 4.) 


This is described as "the breast and arms of 
silver" in the great image, (ii. 32,1 a-uear, and 
succession of beasts as kc : - 


it raised itself up on one side, and it had three 
ribs in the mouth of it, between the teeth of it, 
and they said unto it, Arise and devour much 
flesh." (vii. 5.) 

The silver in the image denotes that this em- 
pire was "inferior," as the prophet state*, to the 
" head of gold." The " breast and ar»is" signify 
the union of the Medes and Persians in one em- 
pire. Ancient historians stigmat&e the Medes 
— -■ ^ ._„:„„«, as being the great^t robbers and 
spoilers that ever oppressed " le nations, which 
may serve to explain the f^'t of their being com- 
pared to a bear. " KySed itself on one side," 
may point to its elevation to supreme power by 
Cyrus, as representing the Persians. "Three 
ribs in the mou^h of it," may point out the king- 
doms of Babylon, Lydia, and Egypt, which were 
oppressed by it. Its cruelty and extent of con- 
quests are signified by its "devouring much 


This empire supplanted and succeeded the 

Medo-Persian, as that had overthrown and suc- 

Tnp/ied the Babylonian, and is necessarily the 

as "the belly an^' * s r ep resent ed in the image 

"* " " ° - «f brass/' (ii. 32,) and 


in Daniel's vision as a "beast like a leopard, and 
it had four wings of a fowl ; the beast also had 
four heads ; and dominion was given to it." 

The brass of the image may signify greater 
moral baseness than was found in the preceding 
empires, and yet greater capacity for conquest. 
Jerome is more complimentary to the brazen 
idea : " For among all metals, brass is more vocal 
and tinkles louder, and its sound is diffused far 
and wide, that it portended not onlv the £>•«<» 
and power of the kingdom, but also the eloquence 
of the Greek language." 

The "leopard," a spotted animal, signifies ac- 
cording to Bochart, the different manners of the 
nations Alexander commanded — a swift ani- 
mal, and having also four wings, indicating 
amazing and unparalleled rapidity of conquest. 
The "four heads" denote the four kingdoms into 
which this third empire was divided. In this 
division Cassander had Macedon and Greece — 
Lysander, Thrace and Bythinia — Seleucus, Syria 
— and Ptolemy, Egypt. Of these, Syria and 
Egypt became far more powerful than the 
others, as indicated in the two "thighs" of the 

All writers on this subject ident'fttner visions 
of the image, and th*> u ' 


which we have noticed, as being in meaning the 
same, and as pointing to the Babylonian, Medo- 
Persian, and Grecian empires. 

This is represented in the vision of the image 
by the "legs of iron, and his feet part of iron 
and part of clay," which latter mixed character 
is also given of the toe, of the feet («• 8o-42.) 
Tn the vision of the beasts, this fourth beast for 
which no appropriate name co^d be round, is 
characterized as being "dreadful and terrible, 
and strong exceedingly; *md it had great iron 
teeth: and it devoured and brake in pieces, 
and stamped the residue with the feet of it: 
and it was diverse from all the beasts that 
were before it: and it had ten horns. I 
considered the horns, and there came up among 
them another little horn, before whom there were 
three of the first horns plucked up ; and, behold, 
in this horn were eyes like the eyes of a man, 
and a mouth speaking great things." (vii. 7, 8.) 
As to the strength of this kingdom, we have this 
further explanation given by Daniel to Nebuchad- 
stiw "And the fourth kingdom shall be 

pieces and Bubte£™ ch as ir ° n br f aketh " 
"" iV ^ha;s : and as iron 


breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces and 
bruise." Corresponding to this is the interpreta- 
tion given to Daniel by the angel, in chap. vii. 
" Then I (Daniel) would know the truth of the 
fourth beast, which was diverse from all the 
others, exceeding dreadful, whose teeth were of 
iron, and his nails of brass; which devoured, 
brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with 
his feet." (Verse 19. ) And he was thus answered 
by the angel : (verse 23 ;) "The fourth beast shall 
be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall 
be diverse from all kingdoms, and shall devour 
the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and 
break it in pieces." 

The chronology Sf the empire thus described 
as succeeding the Babylonian, the Medo-Persian, 
and the Macedonian, with the remarkable de- 
scription of its unequalled and resistless power, 
as given in these visions, would enable almost 
any schoolboy in the land to identify it as the 
terrible Roman empire. 

"All ancient writers, both Jewish and Chris- 
tian," says Bishop Newton, "agree with Jerome 
in explaining the fourth kingdom to be the Ro- 
man. Poryhyry, who was a heathen and *>- 
enemy to Christ, was the first who.J-wen mam- 
other opinion, which. +% 


tained since by some of the moderns, is yet not 
only destitute of authority, but is even contrary 
to the authority of both Scripture and history. 
It is a just observation of Mr. Mede, who was as 
able and consummate a judge as any, in these 
matters: 'The Roman empire to be the fourth 
kingdom of Daniel, was believed by the church 
of Israel, both before and in our Saviour's time, 
received by the disciples and apostles, and the 
whole Christian Church for the first three hun- 
aiea years without any known contradiction.'" 
"The other opinion" referred to, is the preten- 
sion "as absurd as it is singular/' that the king- 
doms of Syria and Egypt, which belonged to the 
third kingdom, and are represented by the thighs 
of brass, constitute the fourth. The learned 
Bishop indignantly and successfully refutes this 
absurd theory of a mere faction of interpreters 
of prophecy. For the identification of the Roman 
empire as the fourth kingdom represented in the 
two visions under consideration, the reader is re- 
ferred to almost any author who has written on 
these subjects since the rise of that empire. 

This will also more fully appear from further 
Singulation of these prophecies of the fourth 

The two legs oi „_. 

~*> as descriptive of the 


Roman empire may signify the division of the 
empire into the eastern and western, with some 
reference it may be to the dual consulate in the 
earlier period of its history, when it was specially 
"diverse from all other kingdoms" in having a 
republican form of government. 


The "ten toes" of the image, and the "ten 
horns" of the beast, which phrases, as all agree, 
have the same meaning, are the ten primary king- 
doms into which the Roman empire was finally 
divided. " These are indeed, " says Scott, 
" reckoned up in several ways by different writers, 
according to the date assigned by the enumera- 
tion ; but, in general it is clear that the principal 
kingdoms in Europe at this day sprung from 
them, and comprise them, excepting some of the 
more northern regions, and those possessed by the 
Turks. " 

The historian Machiavel, Mr. Mede, Bishop 
Lloyd, and Sir Isaac Newton, are quoted by Bishop 
Newton, as calculating the divisions of the Roman 
empire for different periods, with the same reesi' 
as to the number, ten. The ^Bifad been fatal 
further. " As if that n«^ 1 


in the Roman dominions, it hath been taken 
notice of on particular occasions ; as about 
A. D. 1240, Eberard, Bishop of Saltsburg, in the 
diet of Ratisbon. At the time of the Reforma- 
tion there were also ten ; so that the Roman em- 
pire was divided into ten in a manner first and last. 
Mr. Whiston wrote in 1706, 'that as the num- 
ber of the kingdoms into which the Roman em- 
pire in Europe agreeably to the ancient prophe- 
cies, was originally divided A. D. 456, was ex- 
aotly ten, so it it is very nearJy returned to the 
same condition.' " As the third kingdom was di- 
vided into four parts, so the fourth was di- 
vided into ten. And, as Sir Isaac Newton says, 
" whatever was their number afterwards, they are 
still called the ten kings from their first number." 
Machiavel's reckoning of the ten toes and the 
ten horns or kingdoms, is thus : First, the 
Ostrogoths of Mcesiaj second, the Visigoths, of 
Pannonia ; third, the Sueves and Aluns of Gas- 
coigne and Spain; fourth, the Vandals in 
Africa ; fifth, the Franks in France ; sixth, the 
Burgundians in Burgundy ; seventh, the Heruli 
and Turingi in Italy ; eighth, the Saxons and 

tenth" t! n Britain ; ninth, the Huns in Hungary ; 

afterwards in Italy*? 8 ' at firSt Up ° n the ^^ 


The Little Horn. — The fathers as Irenseus, 
St. Cyril, St. Jerome, and others, interpreted 
this of Antichrist. Among Protestant writers, 
both the little horn and Antichrist are under- 
stood to mean the Papal power. The three 
kingdoms subdued by the little horn, are under- 
stood by Scott to be those of the Heruli, the 
Ostrogoths, and the Lombards. Dr. Clarke and 
Sir Isaac Newton understand by them the Ex- 
archate of Ravenna, the kingdoms of the Lom- 
bards, and the States of Rome. 

The coincidences of the little horn with the 
papacy are abundant and decisive. He is the 
little horn from the smallness of his beginning 
and of his territorial dominion. " He shall be 
diverse from the rest," as being an ecclesiastical 
more than a temporal power." " And in this 
horn wefe eyes like the eyes of a man," denoting 
superintendence, cunning, policy. " He had a 
mouth speaking great things," full of boasting, 
promising to absolve from all sins, threatening 
with destruction kings and kingdoms, and all 
others who oppose his authority. " His look was 
more stout than his fellows" — the Pope assuming 
superiority, not only over his fellow bishon%nall 
over the kingdoms of the world los t'jiigh," or as 
speak great words ae^*" 


Symmachus has it, " lie shall speak as if he were 
God," claiming to be infallible, to forgive sins, 
to be higher than the kings of the earth ; all 
which belong only to God. " In Gratian's de- 
cretals the Pope hath the title of God given to 
him." " And he shall wear out the saints of 
the Most High," by wars, massacres, and in- 
quisitions, persecuting and destroying the faith- 
ful servants of Jesus, and the true worshippers 
of God who protest against his innovations, and 
refuse to comply with the idolatry practiced by 
the Church of Rome; as Bishop Newton ex- 
plains it. " And he shall think to change 
times and laws," which Dodd interprets, "ap- 
pointing fasts and feasts, canonizing persons 
whom he chooses to call saints, granting pardons 
and indulgences for sins, instituting new modes 
of worship utterly unknown to the Christian 
Church, new articles of faith, new rules, and re- 
versing at pleasure the laws both of God and 
man." All these particulars are descriptive of 
the Papal and of no other power. " Until a time, 
times, and the dividing of time." This is usually 
understood to be three and a half prophetic years, 
j. V. reckoning thirty days to the month, and a 

m, ,...V , '"■nuld make 1260 years. 
1 he little horn w n,^ . ± ^ . ., , . x , 
"nites the spiritual with 


the civil is the State Church of Europe. And 
the same idea of the union of church and state 
which it represents as being itself a dual power, 
and as growing among the horns on the head of 
the beast, is set forth in the vision of the 
metallic image by the union of the clay with the 
iron in the feet and toes. Such is not indeed 
the interpretation usually given of this figure. 
St. Jerome, who lived to see the incursions of 
the barbarians, but did not live to see the loftiest 
pretensions and darkest corruptions of popery in 
the middle ages, understood it to mean the mix- 
ture of barbarism with civilization in the em- 
pire, and he has been generally followed in this 
by Scripture interpreters. But the identity of 
the two visions requires the interpretation for 
which we contend. It is true that the vision of 
Daniel contains some explanatory circumstances 
which are not found in that of Nebuchadnezzar ; 
but it is also true that the latter vision contains 
some very important particulars not found in the 
former. The two visions confessedly agree as to 
leading items. The little horn in the one vision 
is a very material point, without which it would 
be incomplete as a representation ofLfant an 
history. And is it possible th^. ^^ g0 that 
item can be left o" f 


the whole idea of the little horn is ignored, 
together with that which corresponds with it in 
the history ? If this be so, how can the great 
image be a correct representation, even in general 
items of the scope of history it is designed to 
embrace ? It may be true, that as prophecy has 
generally a double application, the mixture of 
clay with iron in the feet and toes of the image 
may receive illustration from the incursion of 
barbarians, but is it rational that it should mean 
this mainly, much less exclusively, when the 
same figure would explain more forcibly the 
church and state union in accordance with the 
truth of history, and with the setting forth in 
the other vision ? We are strongly in favor, 
therefore, of Dr. Baldwin's theory as contained 
in Armageddon, pp. 123-4-5 : " The term, they 
shall mingle themselves with the seed of men, 
conveys with great clearness the idea of the de- 
gradation of a superior class of persons by 
mingling with the seed of men in natural 
affairs. It is very similar to a passage in Genesis, 
which speaks of the corruption of the sons of 
God by uniting with the daughters of men. 
""" '* singling with seed of men by this superior 
class also cim. , a ^^ly the notion f a spiritual 
people uniting with a w .u; eal power . I ndee d, 


as no two classes of men can be found in the 
world corresponding to the two in the text ex- 
cept spiritual and carnal people, the union of 
these two classes in the fourth empire, must 
represent church and state union in it, and as in 
the Roman or fourth great empire, such a union 
did exist, the case is a very clear one, that the 
mingled clay represented the Church of Christ 
corrupted by union with the civil power of 
Rome represented by the iron." 


The reconstruction of the Roman empire for 
which Dr. Baldwin contends, is, we think, repre- 
sented in the fact that the image is a chronolo- 
gical one, that the toes appear after the feet, that 
the stone is cut out of the mountain after 
the toes appear, and yet, that the stone strikes 
the feet of the image. This reorganization is 
a vast and powerful embodiment of the spirit of 
the Roman empire, nay, of all these empires, 
without special reference to locality or form of 
government. This reconstruction in spirit is 
signified in the fact that when the stone strikes 
the image it finds and destroys the gold »". , _, 
and brass, as well as the iror> —"* •* ' 


the material of the whole image, both as to suc- 
cessive and specific characteristics, and the 
spirit that pervades the whole — the spirit of 
monarchy and despotism. This is still more 
clearly set forth in the fact, that when in the 
other vision it is said that the " beasts had their 
dominion taken away, their lives were prolonged, 
or rather a prolonging of life was given them, for 
a season and time." This is no representation 
of the bodies of the beasts, i. e., the nations 
which exist now where the beasts held their sway, 
but of the spirit of despotism which, while 
manifesting specific characteristics in each suc- 
cessive power, passed down the line of dominion 
until, in the reconstructed feet of the great image, 
or Rome reorganized in " the last end of the in- 
dignation," it is crushed by the "stone cut out 
of the mountain." 




The closing symbols in the visions agree — The mount- 
ain with the Ancient of Days — The stone with the 
one like the Son of man — The text — Bishop Newton — 
Civil governments — Tenor of the visions — Necessi- 
ties of the case — The Ancient of days not God in 
person, in nature, in revelation, in providence, but 
in government — Stone not the Church — Date — 
Baldwin — Conflict with despotism ; from without ; 
sudden — Takes the place of the despotism it destroys — 
Called a "kingdom" — Dr. Clarke's exposition— t-Dr. 
Baldwin's — Harmony of the visions. 

In Nebuchadnezzar's vision, after the entire 
image representing the four successive mon- 
archies is seen, even down to the feet and toes, 
two other objects appear — "the mountain," and 
the "stone cut out of the mountain." In Dan- 
iel's vision, the four beasts, which also represent 
the four monarchies, are succeeded by " the 
Ancient of days," and " one like the Son of 
man with the clouds of heaven." 

Now, whatever these objects may represent, 
they assuredly synchronize in the two visions. 


The " mountain" in the one, is " the Ancient of 
days" in the other; and the "stone cut out of 
the mountain" in the former, is the " one like 
the Son of man" in the latter. The consistency 
of the visions with each other, as jointly fur- 
nishing, as they confessedly do, a dual repre- 
sentation of the same successive kingdoms, 
requires this interpretation. There are six 
symbolic representations in each, and these six 
respectively agree in the two visions. This, as 
all agree, is the case with four of the symbols, 
beginning with the first in each vision, and the 
same is as certainly true of the remaining two. 

This is further apparent, from the tact that 
the same preeminent and perpetual dominion 
which is ascribed to the " stone cut out of the 
mountain, is ascribed to the " one like the 
Son of man." Of the former, it is said 
"it became a great mountain, and filled the 
whole earth ;" and again, that " it shall never be 
destroyed; and the kingdom shall not be left 
to other people, but it shall break in pieces, and 
consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand 
for ever." Of the latter it is said, " There was 
given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, 
that all people, nations, and languages, should 
serve him : his dominion is an everlasting do- 


minion, which shall not pass away, and his king- 
dom, that which shall not be destroyed." And 
again, " The kingdom and dominion, and the 
greatness of the kingdom under the whole 
heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints 
of the Most High, whose kingdom is an ever- 
lasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve 
and obey him." Now this identity of the indi- 
visible characteristics of universal and everlast- 
ing dominion (which we shall endeavor to explain 
in due time) positively fixes the identity of the 
stone kingdom with the " one like the Son of 
man." And this again as decisively identifies 
the mountain with the Ancient of days. The 
mountain immediately precedes the stone, just 
as the Ancient immediately precedes the one 
like the Son of man. The mountain succeeds 
the metallic image, even the ten toes of that 
image, just as "the Ancient" succeeds the four 
beasts, even the ten horns of the fourth beast. 
In the one vision, the mountain intervenes 
between the image and the stone that breaks it, 
while in the other " the Ancient" intervenes in 
the same manner between the four beasts and 
the "one like the Son of man." On the one 
hand, the four sections of the image and the 
four beasts have been found to synchronize ; on 


the other hand, the stone kingdom and the one 
like the Son of man are the same. Therefore, 
the mountain, which intervenes between the four 
sections of the image and the stone, and the 
Ancient of days, which intervenes between the 
four beasts and the " one like the Son of man," 
must inevitably be the same. Thus Bishop 
Newton on Prophecy, p. 224 : " The stone that 
was cut out of the mountain without hands, and 
became itself a mountain, and filled the whole 
earth, is explained to be a kingdom, which shall 
prevail over all other kingdoms, and become 
universal and everlasting. In like manner, one 
like the Son of man came to the Ancient of 
days, and was advanced to a kingdom which 
shall prevail likewise over all other kingdoms, 
and become universal and everlasting." The 
italicizing in this passage is intended to exhibit 
more clearly that which the learned prelate de- 
signed to show : the "concord and agreement" 
between these prophecies of Daniel. This 
" concord and agreement" will more fully appear 
as we proceed. 

The mountain thus identified with the Ancient 
of days, and the stone cut out of the mountain 
thus found to synchronize with the one like the 
Son of man, are civil governments. 


The consistency of the visions with them- 
selves and with each other demands this inter- 
pretation. The other symbols of the visions 
confessedly mean civil governments. These 
latter appear on the same field of vision. They 
are seen thus to speak with the same prophetic 
eyes. " The mountain" and " the stone" are as 
visible and material as the four sections of the 
metallic image ; and if the latter represent civil 
or outward governments, so do the former. The 
Ancient of days, and the one like the Son of 
man, are just as tangible and visible as the wild 
beasts that precede them. A man, whether old 
or young, while differing in character from a 
beast, is yet no less visible and tangible, and 
equally suitable as a symbol of outward or civil 
government. Indeed, all the symbols being of 
precisely the same character as to the visible or 
invisible, and occurring in concatenation in the 
same visions, they must certainly be understood 
in the same sense as to this question. If the 
"mountain" and "stone" — if the "Ancient" 
and the "one like the Son of man," mean the 
inward and spiritual, then must the four sections 
of the image and the four beasts, which are no 
more material as emblems, also express the in- 
ward and spiritual : with this single difference, 


however, that while the former indicate the 
spiritual in a good sense, and thus symbolize true 
religion, the latter indicate the spiritual in a bad 
sense, and thus symbolize false religion. In this 
consistent mode of interpretation, on the ground 
assumed by the opponent, the civil is utterly lost 
in the spiritual throughout the visions, and there 
is no representation of the successive empires 
of the world. This is manifestly absurd. But, 
on the other hand, if the sections of the image 
and the corresponding beasts symbolize civil 
governments, then must "the mountain" and 
" stone," the "Ancient of days" and the " one 
like the Son of man," which are equally visible 
and tangible, and which immediately succeed 
them, also represent civil governments, with, 
however, this simple difference : that, while the 
former symbols point to oppressive and corrupt 
governments, the latter symbols are expressive 
of free and pure governments. 

The interpretation for which we contend arises 
out of the necessities of the case. If these are 
not civil governments, what are they ? 

Is it contended that the "Ancient of days" is 
the eternal Father? This is Dr. Clarke's view. 
And yet he says that Almighty God is nowhere 
else represented as an old man. This fact of 


Itself furnishes strong presumption that he is 
not so represented here. Can the position of 
the great commentator be sustained in view of 
the prohibition of the immutable law of God, 
that any visible representation should be made 
of himself? This is the more impressively true 
if a hypothesis can be found which will satisfy 
the name and description here given, without 
forcing upon the mind the painful alternative of 
regarding them as unmeaning on the one hand, 
or as descriptive of the eternal God as an old 
man on the other. 

The Ancient of days on his chariot-throne 
cannot possibly be a representation of God per- 
sonally for the above reasons, and for the further 
one that he is a Spirit, without body or parts. 
The ascription of eyes to God, which denote his 
superintendence — of an arm to him, which points 
out his power, exercised in protection or in wrath, 
etc., is, to our conception, very different from 
describing him personally as an old man. Ac- 
cordingly, if this be a description of Almighty 
God, it symbolizes him in some particular posi- 
tion as to human affairs, or as assuming some 
special relation to mankind. Let us investigate 
this thought. 

It will not be contended that the Ancient of 


days is God in nature, appearing at a late period 
in the world he has made. Nor does he symbol- 
ize God in Revelation, manifesting himself thus 
so long after the sacred canon becomes complete. 
Nor can the Ancient represent the Father in 
general providence. This providence extends 
over all nations and through all time. He rules 
among the inhabitants of the earth. The nations 
are before him nothing, less than nothing, and 
vanity. He cutteth off the spirit of princes. 
He setteth up one and .putteth down another. 
Daniel says to King Nebuchadnezzar, when ex- 
plaining his dream, " The God of heaven hath 
given thee a kingdom, power, and strength, and 
e;lory." There is a providence at the beginning, 
as well as at the close of these visions. 

If, therefore, the Ancient of days be a mani- 
festation of Almighty God, it is in the form of 
government. This is indicated by the terms 
"thrones," "sits," "judgment," spoken of in 
direct reference to the Ancient of days. This 
cannot be the Divine government proper, for that 
extends over the whole universe, and sweeps 
through time and eternity. If there be a Divine 
government here, it must be embodied in Church 
or State. We have already noticed the absurd- 
ity of supposing that four of the governments 


in this vision are civil, while the remaining are 
ecclesiastical. Let us press this subject a little 
further in this connection. 

The Ancient of days cannot be the Church 
of God. If so, how can it be true, as many 
affirm, that the stone cut out of the mountain is 
the Church ? For, as we have shown, the Ancient 
synchronized with the mountain, and not with 
the stone, which is identical with the one like the 
Son of man. The Ancient and the stone cannot, 
therefore, both symbolize the Church. 

The dates of the appearance of the Ancient 
of days and of the cutting of the stone out of 
the mountain, utterly forbid the supposition that 
one or both of them should represent the Church 
of God. Daniel, in his vision, says, " I beheld, 
and the same horn (the little horn) made war 
with- the saints, and prevailed against them ; 
until the Ancient of days came, and judgment 
was given to the saints of the Most High." It 
is said, further, that this political or national 
"judgment" was not to sit until the little horn 
had worn out the saints of the Most High, and 
until they had been given into his hand, " until 
a time and times and the dividing of time," or, 
as the commentators reckon, 1260 years. Thus 
the Ancient was not to come until the Roman 


empire, symbolized by the fourth beast, was 
divided into the ten kingdoms, as answering to 
the ten horns of the beast, and the papal power 
signified by the little horn had worn out the 
saints of the Most High — nearly, according to 
the common understanding, 1260 years : nearly, 
we say, because the Ancient comes before the 
destruction of the little horn ; and is instrumental 
in that destruction. 

Now the Ancient is identical, as we have seen, 
with the mountain, out of which the stone is 
cut. This stone, to which the Church idea is 
specially attached, cannot, then, be cut out of 
the mountain before the mountain existed, but 
necessarily at a period later than that at which 
the mountain, or Ancient, appears. Accordingly, 
Daniel, in describing to the king his vision, 
says, " This image's head was of fine gold-, his 
breast and his arms of silver, his belly and his 
thighs of brass, his legs of iron, his feet part of 
iron and part of clay. Thou sawest till that a 
stone was cut out of the mountain without 
hands, which smote the image upon his feet that 
were of iron and clay, and brake them in pieces." 
" In the interpretation of the dream, the prophet 
expressly told the king that after he had seen 
the whole prophetic and chronological image 


down to the toes, that then he continued to look 
forward, and that in looking forward his atten- 
tion was arrested by the sight of a stone cut out 
of the mountain without hands. The expres- 
sion, ' thou sawest till that a stone was cut out,' 
indubitably signifies a looking into the future 
from the toe period, on which his attention had 
last rested. The term ' thou sawest till ' has an 
expression of futurity in it^ absolutely as well as 
relatively. The word till, says Mr. Webster, 
signifies to the time of, or to the time : as, I will 
wait till next week ; occupy till I come ; saying 
they would neither eat nor drink till they had 
killed Paul. The term 'thou sawest' signified 
that he continued to look upon events. Now, 
as all the events in the vision beside the stone 
occurred chronologically, the expression ' thou 
sawest till that a stone was cut out' shows that 
the looking was chronologically into the future." — 
Baldwin. Let it be noted, too, that it was not 
a stone that had been cut out of the mountain, 
but the event of the cutting out was seen in the 
vision after the feet and toes of the image are 
seen. The further explanation of the dream is 
also decisive upon this point. When the prophet 
had reached the mixture of iron and clay in the 
feet and toes, he says, " In the days of these 


kings (or kingdoms) shall the God of heaven 
set up a kingdom." "Relative words," says 
Hedge in his Logic, " should be referred to the 
nearest rather than a remote antecedent." 
"These" kings must be the toe kings of which 
he had been speaking. " These" being plural, 
must refer to the plurality of kingdoms which 
the prophet had spoken of as existing in the 
Roman empire, as now marking the period when 
the stone is cut out of the mountain. To apply 
the term " these" to all these empires, meaning 
that somewhere during the successive ages of 
their history the God of heaven should set up a 
kingdom, is to depart from all perspicuity, and 
confuse, as to dates, the whole vision. The 
phrase " these kings" could not apply to the rise 
of Cbristianity, for the Roman Empire then 
existed as one kingdom, to which, of course, a 
plural term could not be applied. But the rise 
of the kingdom in question during the broken 
state of the empire, coincides with the period in 
the chronology of the vision the prophet occu- 
pies when making this exposition, with the fact 
that the stone was cut out of the mountain after 
the feet and toes of the image appear, and with 
the fact that even the Ancient of days did not 
come until after the ten horns of the beast had 


arisen, and even the little horn had long worn 
out the saints of the Most High. 

That the stone is not the Church of Christ is 
also plain from its work, and from the manner 
in which that work is performed. The first 
business of the stone after being cut out of the 
mountain, is to break in pieces the feet of the 
image, or the reconstructed Roman empire. It 
is first seen in violent and deadly conflict with 
civil despotism, whereas the Church, as such, 
has nothing to do with the State. In the 
prophecies of the Bible she is represented as 
being corrupted by such connection wherever it 

The stone comes in conflict with despotism 
from without, whereas the action of the Church 
upon an empire or nationality is from within. 
Christian truth, as leaven, diffuses itself silently, 
imperceptibly, till the whole is leavened. It 
may in this way enlighten, refine, and elevate a 
people, and by preparing them for higher forms 
of government, may indirectly bring about the 
adoption of such forms. But the violent, de- 
structive action from without, as of the stone 
upon the feet of the image, cannot possibly be 
realized in any legitimate movement of the 
Church of God, 


The action of the stone upon the feet of the 
image is sudden and complete. The idea ex- 
pressed is affirmed by Dr. Clarke to be that of 
the hurling of a stone from a Roman catapult. 
The effect is the immediate and utter destruction 
of the image. The influence of the Church is 
not only silent and unseen, but gradually pro- 
gressive, and cannot possibly be illustrated by the 
conflict of the stone with the image. 

The stone takes the place of the image after 
its destruction, and finally becomes "a great 
mountain, and fills the whole earth." The fact 
that the stone not only destroys the image, but 
supplants it in the inheritance of the greatness 
and glory and dominion, is conclusive as to its 
being a civil government, though different in 
character from the image. 

The stone is expressly called a " kingdom," 
just as the sections of the image and the beasts 
are kingdoms. And this kingdom is identified 
with " the people of the saints" — not the saints 
personally or collectively, but the people of the 
saints, or a glorious Christian nationality, pos- 
sessing the greatness and glory under the whole 

The fact that the date of the appearance of 
the stone kingdom is positively fixed as being 


after the feet and toes of the image appear, or 
in the broken state of the Roman empire, to- 
gether with the other considerations we have 
named, are conclusive of the civil character of 
the stone kingdom. 

What sad work the usual exposition, which 
identifies the stone with the Church, makes of 
the imagery and chronology of these visions ! 
Take that of Dr. Clarke as a specimen. Whereas 
the prophet plainly tells the king that from the 
toe period of the great chronological image he 
saw " till that a stone was cut out of the mount- 
ain," the commentator makes him see backward 
from that period, to the rise of the Christian 
Church in Judea, many centuries before. And 
he understands, further, that the mountain is 
the Roman empire, which is characterized in 
the vision itself as the legs of iron, and the feet 
part of iron and part of clay. How the Church 
was cut out of the Roman empire cannot, we 
think, be satisfactorily explained. Such expo- 
sitions illustrate the fact that the vision of pro- 
phecy was shut up until the time of the end. 
Bishop Newton says of these very predictions, 
" It is the nature of such prophecies not to be per- 
fectly understood till they are fulfilled. The best 
eomment upon them will be their fulfilment." 


Our conclusion is, that neither the Ancient of 
days, nor the stone cut out of the mountain, sym- 
bolizes the Church of Christ. 

If, then, the Aneient of days be understood 
to be Almighty God, (and there is a Divine idea 
in the symbol,) he is not a revelation of him 
personally, nor in creation, nor in his word, nor 
in general providence, but in a nationality, raised 
up by him as an instrument for the accomplish- 
ment of great and beneficent changes in the 
condition of mankind. And as he certainly did 
in ancient times raise up a nationality for such 
a purpose, it is surely not unreasonable that he 
should in the latter ages select one for the ac- 
complishment of still greater good for the human 

Our business in this part of the investigation 
is with the fifth kingdom ; but in order to prove 
this to be outward and visible, it is necessary to 
show the same to be true of the sixth, with 
which it must agree in spirit, and for which it 
prepares the way. If one of these be visible 
and outward, so is the other. And we have 
endeavored to prove both to be of this character. 

Here it may be proper to notice Dr. Baldwin's 
obvious error in explaining these closing symbols 
of the visions under discussion. He correctly 


understands the Ancient of days to be the fifth 
kingdom, or the United States of America, but 
makes this synchronize, not with the mountain 
in the other vision, but with the stone cut out 
of the mountain ; whereas, as Bishop Newton 
affirms, and as we have shown from the text, the 
stone is identical, not with the Ancient, but 
with the one like the Son of man. This con- 
founding of the fifth kingdom in the one vision 
with the sixth in the other, leaves him the awk- 
ward task of accounting for the mountain in one 
vision, and the one like the Son of man in the 
other, when there is nothing to synchronize with 
them. As to the mountain, he says it symbol- 
izes a government, either civil or ecclesiastical. 
And inasmuch as the stone is a Christian nation- 
ality, a kingdom set up by the God of heaven, it 
is cut out of the Church : ' not cut off from the 
mountain as a stone cut off from a cliff or a 
iedge of rocks composing a mountain, but the 
change of the mountain substance into a double 
nature, just as we say a statue is cut out of a 
block of marble, or a vase is cut out of alabaster." 
But let it be noted that the figure is not the 
carving of a statue out of a rock, but the cutting of 
a rock out of the mountain, without reference to 
the statue at all. Now the simple cutting of a 


rock out of the mountain must be very different 
from (1.) changing the mountain substance into 
a rock 5 (2.) carving the rock into an image, 
which is, unless the mountain substance be 
already a rock, the precise process we understand 
to be involved in the exposition under notice. 
Further, if the idea were that of chiselling a rock 
into a statue, it would mean the transformation 
of the Church, as such, into the State, so that 
the Church really becomes the State, which is 

In another place our friend Dr. B. makes the 
mountain out of which the stone is cut to be the 
throne on which Ancient sits. The Ancient he 
identifies with the stone, and the Ancient's 
throne with the mountain. This is precisely 
confounding the stone with the mountain after it 
is taken from it, whereas they are as distinct as 
any two sections of the image, or two beasts, after 
one has succeeded the" other. The mountain and 
stone are two; whereas the Ancient on his throne 
is one, expressed according to the Doctor's own 
correct theory under dual symbols. 

Again : the one like the Son of man is, ac- 
cording to the Doctor, not a government distinct 
from the Ancient, but simply a change of form, 
answering to the stone's becoming a great 


mountain and filling the earth. But the Ancient, 
and the one like the Son of man, are as distinct 
from each other as any two of the beasts or sec- 
tions of the image, or as the mountain and the 
stone, with which they respectively agree. 

But when the mountain is identified with the 
Ancient of days, and the stone with the one like 
the Son of man, and the growth of the stone 
into a mountain filling the earth, with the uni- 
versal and eternal dominion of the one like the 
Son of man, we have the latter parts of the 
visions as beautifully and harmoniously complete 
as the former. "The concord and agreement" 
of the two visions are thus fully seen, and they 
become, indeed, as Mr. Mede says, " The sacred 
calendar and great almanac of prophecy." 

This chapter is designed to pave the way for 
proofs, both presumptive and direct, that the 
mountain and the Ancient of days jointly sym- 
bolize the United States of America 




The mountain and the ancient identified with the 
mountain of the Lord's house, or Israel restored — 
The typical system — The church — The state — Israel 
restored not spiritually — not literally — but in the 

Having shown that the mountain and the 
ancient of days are identical, and that they rep- 
resent a civil government, we shall endeavor to 
establish their reference to the United States of 
America. It may he proper, however, at once, 
to identify these prophecies of the fifth kingdom 
with a class of predictions in the other prophets, 
which, though unconnected with this great chain 
of empire, refer unmistakably to this same fifth 
kingdom. The symbol of this power in the 
king's dream, is the mountain. " Mountain" 
signifies, as we have seen, a government — a civil 
government. It is not a mountain indefinitely, 
but specifically the mountain — the great prophetic 
mountain familiar to the prophets as the central 
glorious christian nationality of future times. It 


is "the mountain of the Lord's house, estab- 
lished in the top of the mountains." (Isaiah ii. 
2.) (Micah. v. 1.) This is further manifest 
from the corresponding symbol in the prophet's 
vision. It appears, as we have seen, late in the 
christian era, and yet is characterized as an old 
man, styled the ancient of days, with hair white 
as wool. These items signify old age. Now, as 
we have seen, if the ancient symbolize God, it is 
God, not personally, but God in a government or 
nationality. And the machinery here employed 
must describe the nationality to which it applies. 
The symbol can be fulfilled only by a nationality 
that existed in " ancient" times ; and ceasing 
to be, is now revived — once existing in type, 
now in antitype. The same is plain from 
the mountain, as identified with the mountain of 
the Lord's house. This is no other than Israel 
restored ; the nationality that God raised up as 
his peculiar government revived, according to 
numerous and explicit predictions "in the last 
days." Isaiah, amid his expostulations with 
Israel, either literal or restored, or both, utters 
this prophecy of the mountain of the Lord's 
house. (Is. ii. 2.) This is still more obvious 
in the connection of the prophecy as repeated in 
Micah iv. 1. In the verse immediately prece- 


ding it, is written : " Therefore shall Zion for 
your sakes be ploughed as a field, and Jerusalem 
shall become heaps, and the mountain of the 
house as the high places of the forest." Let 
this be applied to the literal Jerusalem, which is 
connected with the mountain of the house which 
is to be destroyed. " But," in contrast with this, 
" in the last days it shall come to pass that the 
mountain of the house of the Lord shall be es- 
tablished in the top of the mountains." And 
this mountain or government is again in the next 
verse spoken of as "Zion" and "Jerusalem." 

This identity of the mountain with Israel in 
the type and in the antitype, is further signified 
in the fact that Zion is called " the holy moun- 

The same is plain from the fact that in the 
prophets the same glory which is ascribed to 
the " mountain" is ascribed to Israel restored in 
the last days. 

The Patriarchal and Jewish dispensations 
were full of types. A type is defined by Web- 
ster as a " a sign, a symbol, a figure of something 
to come; " by Richard Watson, as " an example, 
pattern, or general similitude to a person, event, 
or thing which is to come." Adam was a type 
or figure of him that was to come. Melchizedek 


was made like unto God. Abraham was enabled 
to see Christ's day. Isaac was received from the 
dead in a figure. The paschal lamb was typical 
of " our passover slain for us." 

The whole Jewish system was a typical sys- 
tem. That system consisted of two general de- 
partments — the civil and ecclesiastical, or the 
state and the church. 

That the ecclesiastical department was of a typ- 
ical character is admitted on all hands. Their 
religious ordinances were a figure " for the times 
then present," " shadows of good things to come." 
Their tabernacle typified the greater and more 
perfect tabernacle not made with hands. Their 
high priest was typical of the High Priest of our 
profession. Their sacrifices had reference to the 
one great sacrifice for sins. 

Now, if the state was not like the church typ- 
ical (1) they did not harmonize. They were like 
the legs of the lame, not equal. (2) The one 
was full of meaning for all time ; the other was 
restricted and temporary in signification. (3) 
The one was a glorious success, notwithstanding 
gloomy and protracted reverses, unless the cause 
of God should finally fail in the world ; the other, 
mostly local as it was in influence, and temporary 
in duration, would seem to be a failure. It 


cannot be true that this sublime system, as the 
work of Almighty God, should thus fail in either 
of its great departments. Accordingly, the 
prophets assure us that the old Israel was but 
typical of, and preparatory to, Israel restored in 
the mountain of the Lord's house, when, too, the 
church department should shine forth in its final 
antitypical splendor, as " the law should go forth 
out of Zion, and the word of the Lord from Je- 
rusalem." These prophecies of Israel's restora- 
tion are so literal and circumstantial as to be in- 
capable of a spiritual signification. Take such 
as the following, as specimens : " For lo ! the 
days come, saith the Lord, that I will bring again 
the captivity of my people Israel and Judah 
saith the Lord ; and I will cause them to return 
to the land that I gave to their fathers and they 
shall possess it. (Jer. xxx. 3.) " I will sow 
the house of Judah and the house of Israel with 
the seed of man and with the seed of beast. I 
will bring again the captivity of my people Israel, 
and they shall build the waste cities and inhabit 
them." (Amos ix. 14.) When this restoration 
occurs, the land of Israel is to be the centre of 
immigration for the nations, the religious capital 
of the world. The Lord is to be " a crown of 
glory and a diadem of beauty," and his servant 


David is to reign over his people and the " rem- 
nant of Jacob shall be in the midst of many 
people as a dew from the Lord, as the showers 
the grass, that tarrieth not for man; as a 
lion among the beasts of the forest ; as a young 
lion among the flocks of sheep ; who, if he go 
through, both treadeth down, and teareth in 
pieces, and none can deliver." 

Such passages, and they are numerous in the 
prophets, indicate the restoration of Israel, and 
the greatness and glory of the tribes thus finally 
restored. "What is the character of this restora- 
tion of Israel '/ 

1. As already observed, it will not be spirit- 
ual, as realized in the prosperity of the church, 
as such, in future times. 

The bringing back of the people of Israel to 
their land, the successful pursuit of agriculture 
there, the erection of a glorious nationality amid 
civil conflicts, all of which, and much more is 
foretold, utterly forbid this interpretation. 

2. Nor will it be the literal restoration of the 
Jews to the land of Judea. 

There are three things essential to a type : 1. 
It must point to something future, answering to 
itself, which is called the antitype. 2. This anti- 
type, while in a sense an ideal continuation of the 


type, is never a literal repetition of itself. Not 
a solitary type can be found in the Scriptures, 
which is fulfilled in the antitype by a literal repe- 
tition of itself. 3. The antitype, thus answering 
to the type, and yet differing from it, is far more 
glorious than the type. There is certainly no 
reason for departure from these principles in 
the case before us, but even peculiar reasons for 
adhering to them. The term Israel signifies one 
who prevails with God. And there is the same 
difference between carnal Israel and spiritual 
Israel, as there was between ungodly Jacob and 
prevailing Israel. They are not all Israel who 
are of Israel. 

Abraham too, was the father of the faithful in 
a much higher and sublimer sense than of the 
Jewish people, and was heir of the world as truly 
as he was of Canaan. The Jews as his Datural 
seed, were typical of Christians as his spiritual 
seed. Thus "he is not a Jew who is one out- 
wardly," but "he is a Jew who is one inwardly." 
The promise is thus sure to all the seed. 

It is expressly stated that David should be the 
ruler of Israel restored. This is assuredly David 
in the antitype, who is the root and the offspring 
of David, our Lord Jesus Christ. 

As the ruler is found in the antitype, so must 


be the kingdom he rules. This cannot be the 
literal Jewish nationality rebuilt, but that which 
answers to it in Christian times, and is far more 
glorious. Is the final Israel to consist of the 
literal Jewish people ? Why have they main- 
tained their separate existence as a people ? Be- 
cause of their rejection of the Saviour and adhe- 
rence to the old religion, which forbids their 
amalgamation with other nations. And is it 
credible* that such stubborn, persevering rejec- 
tion of Christ will be rewarded by their almost 
miraculous conversion, and elevation to the spirit- 
ual leadership of the Christian world, while 
Christians who have suffered for ages for the tes- 
timony of Christ, are assigned an inferior and 
secondary position in the enterprise of converting 
the world to God? So far is this from being 
true, that it is expressly stated that the Jews 
will not be converted till the fulness of the Gen- 
tiles shall be brought in. More of this in an- 
other place. 

In accordance with this general typical char- 
acter, the land of Judea is typical of a broader 
and more glorious land of the restored Israel of 
G-od. Palestine is very small, has meagre agri- 
cultural, commercial, and manufacturing advan- 
tages ; is occupied and surrounded by semi-bar- 


barous people. Can it become the - centre of emi- 
gration for the nations, and in all respects, in 
temporal, political, and religious prosperity and 
power, the capital of the world ? Not unless the 
laws of nature and of human society are radically 
and totally changed. 

Why is there a lingering desire among the 
Jews to return to Palestine ? Because of their 
persistent adherence to the old religion, which 
required the worship of God at Jerusalem* Their 
conversion to Christianity would enable them to 
appreciate the words addressed by our Saviour to 
the woman of Samaria : " The hour cometh, when 
ye shall neither in this mountain, nor yet at Jeru- 
salem, worship the Father. God is a spirit : and 
they that worship him must worship him in spirit 
and in truth." 

The prophetic periods cannot be far at any 
rate, according to most writers on prophecy, from 
their termination when the mystery shall be 
finished. And yet there are no indications of 
the restoration of the Jewish people to their own 
land, as a means of finishing this mystery. 

This whole idea of making the typical nation- 
ality of old Israel simply repeat itself in the anti- 
type, is destructive of the relationship between 
the Jewish system as the type, and the Christian 


system as the antitype. If one type is to be ful- 
filled by a literal repetition of itself, why is it not 
so of all other types ? Thus, the theory carried 
to its utmost extent, would thoroughly Judaize 
Christianity itself. 

For these, and many other reasons that might 
be named, we regard the literal theory as entirely 
impossible and absurd. 

We conclude that the nationality of ancient 
Israel is' to be restored in a great Christian na- 
tionality, sustaining the same relations to God 
and the world ; answering to and yet differing from 
and more glorious than the old type ; in keeping 
with the relation's which always subsist between 
the type and the antitype. 

Is it still insisted that the specific promises 
that the Jews shall return to their own land, the 
land wherein their fathers' dwelt must be under- 
stood literally? We answer, that the same iden- 
tity is expressed elsewhere between the type and 
the antitype. Thus it is said that David shall 
rule Israel restored, and as plainly asserted else- 
where that Christ, his antitype, shall do the same. 
Christ is our passover, and yet not the veritable 
lamb slain in the passover. Now in this case the 
type cannot be spiritually fulfilled in the antitype, 
for Christ was as really slain as was the lamb, 


his type. The identity in meaning -is expressed, 
and yet the antitype was different from and far 
more glorious than the type. Thus the language 
in question cannot he spiritualized, for there is a 
real land of Israel restored. But this land of 
restoration is the antitype, and while this is iden- 
tified, as in other cases, with the type, it is also 
different from and far more glorious than the 
type. Now, if admitting that the Jews will 
finally settle in Judea, this will be but one of the 
results of the restoration of Israel in the antitype, 
or the establishment of the mountain of the Lord's 
house in the top of the mountains, and does not 
affect the argument at all, as we shall see more 
clearly as we proceed. 

We have identified the mountain, in the king's 
vision, with the Ancient of days, in the prophet's 
vision ; also the mountain, with the mountain of 
the Lord's house and Israel restored. 

Again, we have found the mountain of the 
Lord's house to agree with the mountain in the 
vision, and Israel restored to synchronize with 
the Ancient of days. These four are thus seen 
to be identical. And our next task is to bring 
proofs from this fourfold source, to show that the 
United States constituted the first embodiment 
of the restored Israel of God. 



The Fifth Kingdom the United States — Proofs presum- 
tive and direct — United States probably in prophecy 
— Her extent, growth, power, a Free Nationality — 
Date of the Fifth Power— Judges— The Little Horn 
— Outside the Roman Empire. 

The mountain, or the mountain of the house 
of the Lord, the Ancient of days, or Israel re- 
stored, unitedly symbolize the United States 
of America. 

Our proofs of this proposition are both pre- 
sumptive and direct. 

A few presumptive proofs may be given. 

If the United States are not represented 
by the mountain and the Ancient of days, 
as corroborated and explained by coincident 
prophecies, then are they excluded from the 
great system of prophecy. They cannot of 
course be symbolized by any section of the 
image down to its toes, or by the successive 
beasts even to the horns of the fourth. No one 
will imagine this to be the case. There is then 
no place for the glorious nationality of the New 



World up to this very point in the vision. That 
it is not represented later will hereafter appear. 
If the model republic as it has existed is not 
represented here, it is excluded from the scope 
of distinctive prophectic vision. 

Is it at all probable that the great republic 
should be left out of prophecy ? 

Consider her territorial extent as being ten 
times larger than France and England com- 
bined, one sixth less only than the fifty-nine or 
sixty empires, states, and republics of Europe, 
and of equal or larger extent than any of the 
old empires that preceded her in history — her 
rapid amazing growth in population and all the 
elements of national greatness, her position as 
the representative of the entire New World — 
her sublime system of government, the wonder 
and admiration of the world — the mighty and 
universal influence she has wielded — the fact 
that no nation has been found to cope with her 
in war or on the field of general politics, mani- 
festing the further fact that she has actually 
held the reins of preeminent dominion — and in 
view of these and other facts and considerations 
that might be adduced, is 4t at all probable that 
the great western power should be left out of 
prophecy ? 


The question derives still greater force from 
the character of the United States as a free re- 
publican government. That the Almighty is 
opposed to despotism is plain from the express 
declarations of his word — from the fact that 
despotic governments are characterized as wild 
beasts which he will providentially destroy — 
from his selection of ancient Israel, a 
free republic, as his peculiar people and 
from his decision that their request of a king 
was the rejection of himself. We can call the 
Most High to account for none of his matters ; 
but can we suppose from data thus furnished in 
his word that he would bring prominently for- 
ward on the arena of prophetic vision the des- 
potisms he hates and will destroy, and utterly 
ignore such a great and free nationality as the 
United States, which accorded in spirit with the 
teachings of his word and exercised an in- 
fluence so vast and beneficial upon the affairs of 
mankind ? 

Let it be asked again with emphasis, Has dis- 
tinctive prophetic vision totally failed to discover 
the New World ? Does it cease with the toes of 
the image, the horns of the fourth beast, the 
fragments of the old Roman empire ? Is there 
to be no national centre for 4he succeeding scene 


of glory, as there has been for the preceding sea- 
son of gloom and sorrow? If the United 
States be not the fifth kingdom, it is because the 
fifth symbols, and, by consequence, the sixth also, 
are wholly spiritual in their character. This, as 
we have seen, cannot be the case. 

Let us notice the direct proofs that the 
mountain and the Ancient of days symbolize 
the United States of America. The date at 
which the mountain of the Lord's house should 
appear, is given in the collateral prophecies re- 
ferred to as "the last days." This phrase would 
be naturally understood to mean the Christian 
era, characterized by the apostle even in his day 
as " the last times." It must further signify a 
late period in the Christian era ; for, as we have 
seen, this is none other than Israel restored, 
which event is located by the prophets, as all 
agree, many ages after the appearance of Christ- 
ianity in the world. 

The vision of the Ancient of days fixes the 
date more specifically. Not to insist at all on 
Dr. Baldwin's calculations, which come down 
with remarkable precision to July 4, 1776, as the 
first period, it is clear from Daniel's vision, that 
the fifth kingdom was to appear after the ten 
kingdoms symbolized by the ten toes of the 


image and the ten horns of the fourth beast had 
arisen. It was to appear further after the little 
horn or popery arose; after that power had 
long worn out the saints of the Most High and 
shortly before the overthrow of his temporal 
dominion. In connection with the appearance 
of the Ancient, the prophet says, "I beheld then 
because of the great words which the horn 
spake, I beheld even till the beast was slain, 
and his body destroyed, and given to the burning 
flame." Dan. vii. 11. The beast in this verse is 
the little horn itself, and not the Roman empire 
out of which it sprung. His body or temporal 
dominion is consumed. And this consuming is 
placed after the Ancient of days came, and in im- 
mediate connection, verse 13, with the coming of 
one like the Son of man. In further expla- 
nation, verses 21, 22, the prophet says this 
little horn " made war with the saints and pre- 
vailed against them, until the Ancient of days 
came, and judgment was given to the saints of 
the Most High." And again: The saints were 
to be given into the hand of the little horn 
"until* a time and times and the dividing of 
time." This period is according to the learned 
generally, 1260 years. This number is reached 
by understanding the time and times and dividing 


of time, to be three and a half times, or years ; 
which, reckoning as the Jews did, thirty days to the 
month, would amount to 1260 prophetic days, or 
years. This period commenced, aa the majority 
of interpreters think, with the decree of Phocas 
constituting the Pope supreme head of the 
Church, in 606. These calculations, and we shall 
not here examine the question of their correct- 
ness, would place the destruction of the body of 
the little horn within the decade upon which we 
have now entered. As a matter of fact, the 
States of the Church have, within a few months, 
been absorbed by the kingdom of Italy, and the 
body of the little horn is in eiFect no more, unless 
it should revive for a little season amid the con- 
vulsions soon to occur in Europe. The Ancient 
was to arise as a great and glorious power before, 
and not very long before, the current period, and 
can be no other than the United States. 

This conclusion is abundantly confirmed by 
the fact, that the Ancient was to be instrumental 
in the destruction of the little horn just as truly, 
though apparently not so directly, as the stone 
was to break in pieces the reconstructed.Roman 
empire. The horn made war with the saints 
" until the Ancient of days came." It seems 
that from the Ancient, judgment proceeded 



against the horn, which was to be executed by 
others. Now the doctrine or fiery stream of 
American freedom, civil and ecclesiastical, has 
scorched and withered papal no less than other 
despotisms. And the more so as it was in this 
case a compound influence against a compound 
despotism. It is entirely manifest that the 
rapid decline and final extinction of popery, as a 
temporal power, are directly traceable to the popu- 
lar revolutions of Europe beginning with the 
French revolution, including the policy and wars 
of Napoleon, which shook that power to its 
centre, together with succeeding convulsions, 
embracing those of 1859-60. And these popu- 
lar revolutions are in their turn as directly 
traceable to the example, the doctrine, and the 
influence of the United States. The Ancient of 
days must be therefore the United States, be- 
cause here and here only is this coincidence to 
be found. 

The fifth kingdom was to arise outside the 
Eoman empire alike in its united and its broken 
state. The Ancient of days is entirely distinct 
from the fourth beast and his horns. And the 
fact that he appears during the existence of 
these horns and of the little horn, is further indi- 
cative of the fact that in locality or territory he 


is separate and distinct from them. Dr. Bald- 
win calculates that the ten thousand times ten 
thousand who stood before the Ancient, amount 
to about the actual population of Europe at the 
rise of the United States, while the thousand 
thousands, i. e., three thousand, would, by the same 
rule of multiplication, amount to the three mil- 
lion then inhabiting the United States. 

The fact that the fifth kingdom is outside the 
Roman empire is still more manifest from the 
king's vision. The stone strikes the feet of the 
image, or reconstructed empire, from without. It 
is outside therefore the Roman empire, even in 
its reconstruction. Now, the stone is cut out of 
the mountain, and the territorial locality is of 
course the same. If therefore the stone was out- 
side the Roman empire, so was the mountain, 
or fifth kingdom, out of which it is taken. 

Now, the Roman empire included western 
Asia, northern Africa, and Europe as far west as 
the British Isles. 

There has been no great and glorious Christ- 
ian nationality arising outside the Roman em- 
pire, and arising too, as we have seen, after it 
was broken into fragments, and after the little 
horn or popery had long existed, and instrumen- 
tal in the destruction of the little horn, except- 


ing the United States of America. The great 
republic must therefore, of necessity, be symbol- 
ized as the fifth kingdom, by the mountain, or 
mountain of the house of the Lord, and by the 
Ancient of days, or Israel restored in the antitype. 
We can see, even at this stage of the investiga- 
tion, no escape from this conclusion. 

It seems to be intimated that the fifth king- 
dom should be of comparatively short duration. 

In the king's dream, the Roman empire is rep- 
resented as the legs, feet, and toes of the image, 
while the mountain is mentioned as intervening 
between the toes and the stone. The empire, 
according to the symbols and to history, occupies 
a vast tract in the aunals of mankind. The ap- 
parently casual mention of the mountain, may 
signify its short duration as compared with that 
of the preceding empire, as well of that ever- 
lasting kingdom which succeeds. 

The same seems indicated in the other vision. 
The ancient does not appear " until" the little 
horn had worn out the saints for a long period ; 
and when he had succeeded in destroying the 
little horn, he gives way after a brief and glorious 
day to the one like the Son of man. 

When the other prophets speak of Israel re- 
stored, they almost immediately speak, as we 


shall see, of Israel in trouble and Israel divided. 
After the mention of the mountain of the house 
of the Lord, as in Micah, the scene is soon pre- 
sented of the travail of the daughter of Zion, 
and the birth of a man child, or final nationality. 
From all our prophetic sources we gather in- 
timations that the fifth kingdom is of brief du- 
ration. The United States existed as a glorious 
republic eighty-four years. 

The fifth kingdom is of vast extent of territory. 

Now, the mountain is not mentioned in the 
original statement of the dream, excepting that 
the inference is furnished that as the stone 
kingdom is cut out, there must be an antecedent 
something from which it is taken, and that as 
the stone is a nationality, this antecedent, of 
whose nature it must partake, is also a nation- 
ality or civil government. This original state- 
ment is very brief, and this hiatus is filled, in the 
explanation following, by " the mountain." This 
apparently casual mention has served to divert 
attention from the importance of the mountain, 
and illustrates the fact that the vision of pro- 
phecy was closed and sealed up until the time of 
the end. 

But if the mountain is left out of the original 



account of the dream, the same is true of the 
toes, which are mentioned afterward. And if 
this does not underrate the importance of the 
toes, neither does it deny the value of the moun- 
tain. While the latter is not so conspicuous as 
the stone, yet as it here appears, and especially 
as synchronizing with the Ancient and with the 
mountain of the house of the Lord, it has great 
value of its own. 

The term mountain, as here used, signifies not 
only government, but as compared with the pro- 
ceeding symbols, and with the facts stated as to 
the stone that it became " a great mountain," and 
filled the whole earth, it signifies a government 
of large territorial extent. 

The same is inferable from its position in this 
and the other vision. In both it so intervenes 
between the preceding empires and the final 
kingdom as to transfer the reins of empire from 
the former to the latter. And as the preceding 
empires were immense, and as the final one be- 
comes so, such must be the case with the one 
that fills the intervening vacuum. In the col- 
lateral prophecies, too, this fifth empire is repre- 
sented as the centre of the world's emigration, 
which can be true only of a large country. 

The same is more clearly seen in the fact that 


the mountain is of sufficient territorial vastness 
to give off from itself, and out of itself, the final 
controlling government of the world. The stone 
itself is of sufficient size and strength (though 
not wholly its own) to break in pieces the great 
image. This stone is not, it would seem, cut off 
as a distant appendage, but " cut out" of the main 
body of the government; and while carrying 
with it the main strength of the government, 
leaves the most of its territory behind. Eor 
when the stone is cut out, it is plain that the 
largest part of the mountain still remains. 
Before this cutting out, the stone certainly con- 
stituted part of the mountain, the two forming 
one nationality, and it necessarily follows that it 
was one of immense extent. 

This territorial vastness is further manifest, 
from the fact that the Ancie'nt of days has his 
throne on wheels. Pillars would denote fixedness, 
but wheels signify motion. Is not this expressive 
of a moving, advancing, expanding nationality — 
one too, that has for its rapid development a vast 
region to be overrun gradually, and yet rapidly, 
by these chariot wheels. And this advance on 
wheels signifies that the large country thus 
brought under sway, is not a distant province 
across the sea, but a vast united territory, such 
as the great republic has alone possessed. 


The fifth kingdom is a vast western wilderness 
settled by emigration, and rapidly developed into 
a great Christian nationality. 

A Wilderness — " In the latter years thou 
shalt come into the land that is brought back 
from the sword, and is gathered out of many 
people, against the mountains of Israel, which 
have been always waste ; but is brought forth 
out of many nations, and they shall dwell safely 
all of them." (Ezek. xxxviii. 8.) 

Here it is expressly stated that the land of 
Israel restored has been always waste. It is also 
a land brought back from the sword. The sword 
symbolizes war. Is it not here stated that the 
land of Israel restored was a wilderness — had 
never been cultivated — and yet was inhabited? in- 
habited, too, by people whose employment was 
not agriculture but war ? This savage people 
must have been divided into nations or tribes, 
as signified by the fact that their business was 
war. The same land is stated to have been a wil- 
derness " from of old." The prophet further 
refers to all the " inhabited parts of the country," 
plainly intimating that after the settlement of 
Israel, there were parts of the country not in- 
habited. How well this agrees with the idea of 
national expansion set forth in the moving wheels 


of the Ancient's chariot throne. All this is true 
of the country occupied and developed by the 
United States, as seen in the rapid addition of 
territories and states to her dominion. 

A Western Land. — " Surely the isles shall 
wait for me, and the ships of Tarshish first, to 
bring thy sons from far." (Isa. lx. 9.) 

"The term 'isles' was applied anciently to 
Europe and all countries west of Asia Minor. 
Those vast countries supposed to exist in the 
Atlantic, west of Gibraltar, are also termed isles, 
by both Plato and Diodorus Siculus." — Baldwin. 

The waiting of the isles, is precisely applicable 
to the mountains of Israel, that were always waste 
until settled and cultivated by the modern Israel 
of God. 

Tarshish was the most ancient name of Spain, 
by whose ships the waiting isles were " first" dis- 

" To bring thy sons from far," signifies the im- 
mense distance of these isles from the countries 
from which emigration should come to them. 

The emigrants being carried in ships to the 
isles, signifies that they lie across the ocean. In- 
deed, the term isles would imply the necessity of 
a voyage to reach them. 


But they shall fly upon the shoulders of the 
Philistines toward the west. (Isa. xi. 14.) 

Flying upon the shoulders of others, means 
transportation by others. Toward the west, sig- 
nifies that that is the direction of the Israel of 
God. It is emigration to the far off isles across 
the sea, or the western land that was " always 

The place of Israel restored being the 
western world, agrees with the fact that the stone, 
and by consequence the mountain out of which 
it is taken, -is outside the Roman empire ; and with 
the fact that while the Ancient of days was sur- 
rounded by thousand thousands, the ten thou- 
sand times ten thousand stood before him for 
judgment in the region beyond his own domain, 
and occupied by the little horu and kindred 

The land of Israel restored is the great centre 
of emigration for the nations of the world. In 
the prophecies of the mountain of the house of 
the Lord, it said that "all nations shall flow 
unto it." (Isa. xi. 2.) This fact repeatedly 
spoken of by the prophets, is intimated in the 
fact that the fifth kingdom, though of short du- 
ration, is nevertheless a vast mountain, and that 


the Ancient moves forward on the wheels of his 
chariot throne. 

The vast emigration in which Israel is gath- 
ered out of many nations, answers to and fulfils 
the Scriptures, which predict that God's peculiar 
people shall be brought back from their disper- 
sions. One prophet says, " I will surely as- 
semble thee, Jacob, all of thee." (Mic. ii. 12.) 
Another conveys the assurance that the outcasts 
of Israel, and the dispersed of Judah from the 
four corners of the earth, shall be assembled. 
(Isa. xi. 12.) Another says, "I will gather the 
remnant of my flock out of all countries whither 
I have driven them." (Jer.xxiii. 3.) "I will bring 
again the captivity of my people Israel and 

And will the ten lost tribes of " Israel" as well 
as " Judah," be brought back to literal Palestine, 
and will that be the centre of emigration for all 
nations, and the capital of the world ? Is is not 
impossible and absurd ? Israel fallen in the 
valley of dry bones, even very dry, were to be 
raised to life. The identity of the resurrection 
bodies is seen in sameness of bones, the difference 
in newness of flesh and sinews, and skin and 
spirit ; and the antitype is rendered still further 


glorious by the multiplication of the bones into 
an exceeding great army. 

The wilderness state of the land of Israel 
previous to its settlement, answers to the desola- 
tions of many generations which have overtaken 
literal Judea. 

The little country of Judea was typical of a 
broader and more glorious land, so vast as that 
the great mountain occupies only the inhabited 
parts of the country, and the Ancient of days 
sits to the very last upon his chariot throne, whose 
flying wheels are as burning fire. 

The old type was in the old world, the glorious 
antitype is in the new, as the final theatre of 
God's kingdom before the renovation of the earth 
by fire. 

The land is the antitype of Judea, the people, 
as Christians, the antitype of the Jews ; and the 
glorious, pure, energetic nationality symbolized 
by the Ancient of days, fulfils the nationality of 
God's ancient people. In no particular is there, 
or could there be, a repetition of the type, but 
everywhere the glorious antitype appears. And 
this antitype appears, as to its first realization, in 
the United States, and cannot possibly be found, 
according to prophetic intimations as to time, lo- 
cality, and description, anywhere else. 


The fifth kingdom, or Israel resored, is a free 
government. Sueh was ancient Israel, and such 
must be the restored Israel of God. 

The image and the beasts confessedly symbol- 
ize despotic governments — such is the meaning of 
the symbols and sueh is the witness of history on 
the subject. The stone is in entire contrast with 
the image whieh it breaks in pieces, and this 
contrast necessarily implies free government. 
The mountain was of necessity of the same gen- 
eral character with the stone before the stone 
was cut out of it, though a change in character 
might have occasioned the separation of the 
stone. The mountain is then a free government. 

The same is indicated in the other vision by 
the contrast between the one like the Son of 
man and the glorious Ancient of days, with whom 
he obviously agrees in spirit, and the wild beasts 
that preceded them. 

The utter contrast of these symbols with those 
of preceding despotisms, is indicative of the 
highest ideal of free government, both in spirit 
and in form. This highest ideal in spirit would 
allow the utmost freedom of the individual man, 
consistent with the peace and safety of the body 
politic. The contrast in this respect is indicated 
in the difference in spirit of humane men, one of 


whom is even like the meek and lowly " Son of 
man," and the terrible beasts of prey, and is 
seen further inform, between the erect form of 
man, with benignity and intelligence in his face, 
and that of the prone, and filthy, and voracious 
brute. The same, both as to spirit and form, is 
seen in the stone, which, as the opposite of des- 
potism, is certainly the final ideal of free gov- 
ernment. This being a free republic, such, also, 
must be the character of the mountain, out of 
which it is taken, and with which it agrees. 

Ancient Israel was a theoeratie democracy, 
and the promise as to Israel restored is, that "I 
will restore thy judges as at the first, and thy 
counselors as at the beginning." Again : "Their 
nobles shall be of themselves, and their governor 
from the midst of them." 

The fifth kingdom or Israel restored, is a feder- 
tive republic. 

The preceding despotisms all included many 
departments, provinces, or kingdoms ia one ; and 
it would be reasonable to expect that a national- 
ity, so vast and so mighty as to succeed them in 
preeminent dominion, should be, in this respect, 
similar. The ease is stronger, in view of the 
fact that the fifth government is a free republic 
A kingdom, however great in extent, may be ruled 


by the sword as one. But a vast free govern- 
ment, resting on the consent of the governed 
could hardly avoid oppression somewhere, unless 
its action were modified and restrained by local 

That such is the character of the fifth kine- 
dom, the Scriptures clearly teach. The cutting 
of the stone out of the mountain implies a block- 
ing off of some of those separate subordinate 
governments in a confederate republic, rather 
than the tearing out of an integral portion of a 
vast consolidated empire. And it would require 
less of effort and violence to do the former than 
the latter. 

Now, this mountain in the king's vision is no 
other than the mountain of the Lord's house, 
spoken of by Isaiah, ii. 2, and Micah v. 1. 
Note the description : " The house of the Lord" 
is his church. "The mountain" which, in the 
prophetic symbols, signifies government, is the 
nationality connected with the house of God — a 
glorious christian government. This is estab- 
lished in the top of other " mountains," also 
symbolic of governments. 

Here is a government established in the top of 
other governments — the federal government in 
the top of the state governments. This is in ac- 


cordance with the interpretation of mountains, 
as laid down in Home's Introduction, Vol. II. 
p. 466 : " High mountains, and lofty hills, denote 
kingdoms, republics, states and cities." The 
reader is referred to dictionaries of symbols on 
this subject. We cannot surely explain this pas- 
sage literally; and to understand "the moun- 
tain" in a symbolic sense, signifying a govern- 
ment, and "the mountains" which follow, as 
literal mountains, as Dr. Baldwin seems to do, is 
to mar the consistency and harmony of the text. 
The United States may occupy, literally, as Prof. 
Maury asserts, the highest part of the earth ; and 
if so, it may be in allusion to this fact, that the 
nations are said to go up to it. But the hypoth- 
esis, whether true or not true, has nothing to do 
with the " mountains" here mentioned. These 
are, in accordance with sacred symbols, govern- 
ments, and the meaning of the figure is, we 
think, that of one government established in the 
top of other governments. Israel restored is a 
federal nationality. 

The federal character of the fifth kingdom is 
further manifest, from the fact that it is Israel 
restored. The ancient, peculiar people of God, 
was a collection of twelve; afterwards, of thirteen 
tribes. Their tribeship was far more obvious 


than their federative character. The former was 
essential ; the latter, as found in the leadership 
of all the tribes by Moses and Joshua, was of a 
more incidental, and partial, and temporary 
character. So strongly was consolidation in their 
government resisted, that even after the reign of 
partial anarchy in the time of the Judges, the 
Almighty decided that the request of a king by 
his people was the rejection of himself as their 
ruler. The idea of Israel's nationality was that 
of many in one of the several equal tribes, with 
a visible centre of unity under the common 
headship and control of Almighty God. 

The federative character of the fifth kingdom 
is cleary discoverable in the vision of the Ancient 
of days. He is represented as coming when the 
thrones are cast down. Any one who has a He- 
brew bible and lexicon, and is prepared to use 
them, can at once satisfy himself that the orig- 
inal word rendered " cast down," as truly means 
" set up, or erected." There can be no sort of 
doubt on this point. 

Dr. Clarke, on this passage, says : "The word 
Remayu might be translated erected; so the 
Vulgate positi sunt, and so all the versions." 
Bishop Newton, in quoting the passage, renders 
"till the thrones were cast down" "till the 



thrones were set up;" and in the margin quotes 
the Vulgate, Septuagint, Syriac, and Arabic, as 
agreeing in this translation. He further says, 
the same word is used in the Chaldee paraphrase 
of Jer. i. 15; they shajl sit every one on Ms 
throne. Matthew Henry says : " I beheld till 
the thrones -were set up; so it might as well be 
read." Frey, a Hebrew, in his lexicon, trans- 
lates remayu by erecti sunt — were erected. 
The Septuagint has etethesan, placed, the same 
in meaning with the term positi in the Vulgate 
So much for the question of philology here in 

The movement of the thrones, whatever i 
may be, is preparatory to the sitting of the An 
cient of days. " I beheld till the thrones wer< 
cast down, and the Ancient of days did sit.' 
The present translation involves the apparent al 
surdity of saying that the thrones, or govern 
ments, are so alarmed at the very approach c 
the Ancient, as to fall before he could do anythin 
to effect their overthrow. These thrones falling 
cannot mean the destruction of the little hori 
for that is one, and is destroyed in consequenc 
of the action of the Ancient after his coming. ] 
cannot mean that the other " horns" of the bea 
fall, preparatory to the sitting of the Ancien 


The governments said to have fallen, are called 
"thrones," as distinguished from the "horns." 
If the Ancient had built up his dominion on the 
fallen " horns" undoubtedly it would have been 
stated, as in the case of the little horn, before 
which " three horns were plucked up," Beside, 
the "stone," and not the ancient or mountain, is 
said to have destroyed the empire, by breaking 
the feet of the ima^e. 

Nor can it be said, on the other hand, that any 
of these horns were set up as preparatory to the 
sitting of the Ancient of days; for these horns 
had appeared long before, and the little horn had 
long worn out the saints of the Most High. 

In truth, it cannot be rationally said that any 
thrones, outside the Ancient's own territory, could 
possibly be either cast down or set up, prepara- 
tory to his coming. If the thrones included in hi3 
dominion were cast down, in order to his sitting, 
then he secures his high place like the beasts 
before him, by the subj ugation of kingdoms ; 
but this is contradicted by the entire character 
of the Ancient, as in contrast with the beasts. 
Besides, he cannot cast these thrones down, to 
extend his dominion, before he comes and sits, 
as here represented. Further, the action of the 
thrones is to furnish a seat for the Ancient, which 


they could not do by falling to the ground ; but 
by lifting themselves up in might and majesty to 
sustain him. The prophecy was realized when 
the thirteen colonies were " set up" as thrones, 
or sovereign and independent States, and as such, 
united to furnish a seat for the federal govern- 
ment of the United States. In this, we see a 
union of the thirteen tribes in the antitype, or 
" the mountain of the house of the Lord, estab- 
lished in the top, of the mountains." 

Bishop Newton, Dr. Clarke, and others, think 
the scene here i^ that of a grand sanhedrin or 
council, with its president in the midst. The 
idea is beautifully appropriate. The Ancient 
takes his seat when the thrones are placed 
around, or "set up" for his reception. The fed- 
eral government sits in the midst of the States, 
united with him in sending abroad the fiery 
stream of civil and religious freedom among the 
despotisms of the old world. 

Dr. Baldwin has, in his Armageddon, elabora- 
ted and illustrated a very useful thought, that as 
ancient Israel contained the national and ecclesi- 
astical departments, both essential to human 
nature and society, as such, the same is true of 
Israel restored ; and that these two departments 
are distinctively symbolized, and that the sym- 


bols are in many instances repeated; thus fur- 
nishing four symbols : two for the one department 
and two for the other, just as Pharaoh's dream was 
repeated, to confirm its truth. 

Dr. Clarke notices the same general thought, in 
his note on Zech. iv. 14, in speaking of Zerubbabel 
and Joshua, as respectively symbolizing or rep- 
resenting the civil and ecclesiastical departments 
of Israel. We think we have found this to be 
true in the symbols of Israel restored. Thus, 
in the vision of the Ancient of days, we have his 
name and venerable appearance signifying that 
he is an ancient government, reappearing, or Is- 
rael restored in antitype. The hoary head rep- 
resents, further, honor, wisdom, superiority, etc. 
We have for the nationality, the Ancient himself; 
for the church idea or symbol, his government, 
which is white as snow. Linen, clean and white, 
is "the righteousness of the saints." The sym- 
bol denotes the purity of the church. 

The symbols are repeated, and we have the 
Ancient's throne, which signifies government, or 
nationality. The " thrones" are set up, and by 
their union, form one throne for the Ancient, 
just as the mountains unite their tops as a base 
for the great mountain. This throne is a fiery 
flame, to denote the purity, energy, and strength 



of the nationality thus set up. The church de- 
partment is further expressed in the wheels of 
turning fire. Here, the image of fire, as indi- 
cating purity, energy, etc., in the government, is 
intensified. While the throne is of fiery flame, 
the wheels are of burning fire, as signifying the 
character of the Christianity developed under the 
Ancient of days. The Ancient and his throne 
being in motion, these wheels, denotes a rap- 
idly expanding religion and nationality, over an 
extending population, in a wilderness country. 
Such has been the case. Population has ex- 
tended from the already " inhabited parts of the 
country," over the land that had been always 
waste, and a pure Christianity has gone with 
them, and the government has been extended 
over these settlements, first as territories, and 
then as States, resulting in a vast and glorious 
christian nationality, the wonder and admiration 
of the world. 




The closing symbols represent the Confederate States 
— The stone cut out of the mountain— without 
hands — Isa. lxvi. 7, 8. — Isa. ii., iii., iv. — The moun- 
tain of the house of the Lord— The trouble of Zion 
— The seven women — Micah iv., v. — The mountain 
of the house — The remnant — The first dominion — 
The birth of the Savior— Birth of the man child — 
Seven shepherds, and eight principal men— The war. 

Haying shown that the dream of Nebuchad- 
nezzer, Dan. ii., and the first vision of Daniel, 
chap, vii., fully coincide in their respective six 
symbols; that they all represent civil govern- 
ments, and that the fifth kingdom, symbolized by 
the mountain and the Ancient of days, is the 
United States, we come now to establish the 
identity of the closing symbols, the stone cut out 
of the mountain, and the one like the Son of 
man, with the Confederate States of America. 

It may be asserted with entire confidence, that if 
the fifth kingdom be the United States, the sixth 
is, and must be, the Confederate States. The 


latter nationality was cut out of the former — out 
of the very body of the government; taking 
away the chief strength and support of the na- 
tional greatness, and leaving the larger propor- 
tion of the territory behind ; all which we under- 
stand to be indicated by the figure here employed. 
It was cut, not torn out — smoothly blocked away 
in the secession of the States as such, which, 
however, on account of the formation of a com- 
mon government, as well as their perfect homo- 
geneity in institutions, interest, and feeling, as 
well as political and commercial strength, are 
represented as a stone — as emphatically one stone. 
The stone was cut out of the mountain without 
hands, or, as the margin reads, which was not in 
hands. The original lo baidain will bear either 
translation. In view of the marginal rendering, 
the phrase may be understood to mean that where 
no semblance, even, of separate government had 
existed, no reins of independent empire had been 
held by human hands, where the stone was 
simply part of, and one with, the mountain, lo ! 
suddenly, and to the amazement of the world, a 
mighty kingdom, even the final kingdom, arose. 
We consider the phrase as explained, however, 
by verse 44 : " In the days of these kings shall 
the God of heaven set up a kingdom." This 


notes the strictly providential — the Divine origin 
of the stone kingdom. But it signifies further, 
that the kingdom thus set up, is indeed God's 
kingdom, in which he will ever reign — from 
which he will radiate millennial glory over the 

The setting up of this kingdom, as a stone cut 
out of the mountain without hands, denotes the 
smallness of human effort and means actually em- 
ployed in its erection. By a sudden, simultan- 
eous, amazing impulse of the people, was the 
secession of the original seven States brought 
about, and by the like impulse, when additional 
momentum was given to the movement, did the 
other four States follow them. If, as we under- 
stand, the Savior is to rule in the sixth kingdom, 
is not his language in Matt. xxiv. 27, applicable 
to the manner of its rise? — "As the lightning 
cometh out of the east and shineth even unto the 
west, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be 
in his kingdom." Thus, with lightning swift- 
ness, did the movement go from east to west, 
until the "seven" States were ready to form a 
common government. 

This coming of the final kingdom, without 
observation or outward show, and without pre- 
vious sufferings of a political redemption, is il- 


lustrated in Isaiah lxvi. 7, 8 : " Before she trav- 
ailed, she brought forth ; before her pain came, 
she was delivered of a man child. Who hath heard 
such a thing ? Who hath seen such things ? 
Shall the earth be made to bring forth in one 
day, or shall a nation be bom at once ? for as 
soon as Zion travailed, she brought forth her 

The same event styled the birth of "a man 
child," is also called the birth of "children;" 
and this event, it is clearly intimated, is the birth 
of " a nation at once." The nation thus sudden- 
ly born, sustains the idea of many in one. In one 
sense, a man child ; in another sense, many child- 
ren. This birth occurred as soon, even before, 
the travail of Zion, or Israel, in the antitype. 
Thus, the nation did not arise out of the smoke 
and carnage of war ; but, by a providential im- 
pulse of the people, was " born at once." The 
vision obviously refers to the future Zion. The 
event is followed by glory and joy of the "Jeru- 
salem" in the final antitype. Verses 10-14 It 
will soon be seen that this birth was, in another 
sense, preceded by internal commotion and 
trouble. It is also- declared in this passage, that 
in the enlarging dominions of the man child, 
other children will be born, besides the original 


ones, as has already been realized, and as the fu- 
ture will more fully reveal. 

The mountain in the king's vision being, as 
we have seen, the mountain of the house of the 
Lord, established in the top of the mountains, 
or, as intimated, in the name and description of 
the Ancient of days, Israel restored in the anti- 
type, or United States, we may expect to find in 
the prophecies relating to this mountain, a divis- 
ion answering to the cutting of the stone out of 
the mountain without hands. Accordingly, the 
division of Israel, after its restoration, is just as 
clearly revealed with even, as we believe, the 
events of that division, as they have recently 
occurred, as that restoration itself. Israel cho- 
sen, and Israel divided, constituted the type. 
Israel restored, and Israel divided, as decisively 
constitute the antitype. When this event oc- 
curs, and not till then, the antitype becomes per- 
fect. Old Israel was divided, and while most 
of the tribes went into captivity, and were lost, 
Judah remained until after the coming of the 
Son of man. Israel restored is also divided, 
and while the majority of its tribes, or States, 
go into captivity, to the spirit of the old monar- 
chies, a remnant is reserved, as the kingdom that 
shall never be moved. 



The reader is now referred to Isaiah ii., iii., iv. 
in which the division, after the restoration, is 
intimated, though not so clearly and decisively, 
as in other places we shall notice. These chap- 
ters plainly constitute one connected prophecy. 
Such, too, is the view of Clarke, Scott, and others. 
In the 2d verse, chap, ii., we have the moun- 
tain of the house of the Lord established in the 
top of the mountains, which, as synchronizing 
with the mountain in Nebuchadnezzar's vision, 
and with Israel restored, we have identified as 
the United States. We have in the succeeding 
verses, down to the fourth, inclusive, a glowing 
description of Israel restored, without special 
reference to the division, excepting that the 4th 
verse may more specially refer to the remnant 
after the division, as the grand instrument in 
bringing about millennial peace and glory ; when 
"nation shall not lift up sword against nation, 
neither shall they learn war any more." This 
identity of Israel, before and after division, is 
illustrated in the type, when the tribes that re- 
mained, after the loss of the others, retained the 
inheritance, as to emolument and promise, which 
had belonged to Israel as a whole, and constitu- 
ted, indeed, the entire Israel of God. The same 
is further illustrated by the obvious fact, that the 


stone partakes of, and concentrates the character 
of the mountain out of which it is taken, and 
inherits from it the final dominion. Thus, too, 
the one, like the Son of man, plainly agrees in 
spirit with the Ancient of days, and takes from 
him the kingdom ; and thus, the man child di- 
rectly succeeds his mother in the glorious inher- 
itance. As the typical Israel was one, notwith- 
standing the typical division, so the antitypical 
Israel is one, notwithstanding the antitypical di- 
vision. As, however, the fact of the former 
division is recorded in history, so the fact of the 
latter division is, with sufficient clearness, re- 
vealed in prophecy. 

On the passage under consideration, Bishop 
Lowth says : "There needs no other proof that 
the grand accomplishment of this prophecy is 
reserved to some future period, than the consid- 
sideration that nothing in any measure answera- 
ble to such forcible expressions, has yet occurred 
on earth." The former part of this prophecy, 
which relates to the establishment of the moun- 
tain of the house of the Lord, as the great 
centre of human immigration, has been fulfilled, 
in the rise of the United States, and the remain- 
der, however glorious, will be realized, when, 
after the great " time of trouble," which has now 


commenced, is over, millennial glory shall spread 
abroad, from the final remnant of Israel as its 
centre, to the ends of the earth. As the begin- 
ning of this great prophecy, contained in these 
three chapters, is future, so is the remainder of 
it future. And, after the above sublime outline, 
the prophet enters into details as to the division 
represented in the cutting of the stone out of 
the mountain. In tbe 2d and 3d chapters, are 
presented the apostasies of the daughter of Zion. 
After setting forth in strong eastern phraseology, 
the crimes and follies, the wealth and power, the 
pride and haughtiness of her great controlling 
tribes, or States, the prophet describes in terri- 
ble language, the scenes of fear and dismay, of 
humiliation and ruin, which are to ensue. How 
fearful the destiny of the daughter of Zion! 
Her mighty and her wise men are taken away; 
an idol shepherd is raised up; children are their 
princes, and babes of no understanding rule. 
Oppression becomes the order of the day, and 
the prophetic Jerusalem is ruined, and Judah 
is fallen. The crown of the head of the daught- 
ters, or tribes of Zion, is smitten with a scab, 
when the Lord shall enter into judgment with 
the ancients of his people. In this day of ter- 
rible national judgment, which shall be upon the 


proud and lofty, the cedars of Lebanon, and trie 
oaks of Bashan — the mountains and hills, the 
high tower, and the fenced wali, the ships of 
Tarshish and the pleasant pictures, or pictures of 
desire, men are exhorted to enter into the rock 
and hide in the dust, to go into the depths of the 
rocks, and the top of the ragged rocks, for fear of 
the Lord, and for the glory of his majesty, when he 
ariseth to shake terribly the earth. The men of 
Zion shall fall by the sword, and her mighty in 
the war, and her gates shall lament and mourn, 
and she, being desolate, shall sit upon the 
ground. Isa. iii. 25, 26. How terrible is the 
doom of the great coercion States of the North, 
as presented in these, and numerous other proph- 
ecies, which shall come under review as we pro- 
ceed ! 

" And in that day, seven women shall take 
hold of one man, saying, We will eat our own 
bread and wear our own apparel ; only let us be 
called by thy name to take away our reproach. 
Isaiah iv. 1. 

Dr. Clarke thinks this verse refers to the 
slaughter mentioned in the last verses in the 
preceding chapter. But when will war be so 
destructive, as to leave but one -seventh of the 
men of a nation ? Besides, the desire of 


the women is, that reproach shall be taken away 
from them. But is it a reproach to be the widow 
of a man slain in battle ? And inasmuch as this 
is written of future times, the reproach of un- 
married life and of destitution of children, felt 
among the ancient Jews, who constantly expect- 
ed the birth of Messiah, must have passed away. 
Further, when it is said, "In that day, seven 
women shall take hold of one man," it immedi- 
ately succeeds that "In that day," i. e., the same 
day, the branch of the Lord is beautiful and glo- 
rious, and the fruit of the earth shall be excel- 
lent and comely for them that are escaped of 
Israel." Verse 3. The day of the movement 
of the women, and the day of the branch of the 
Lord, are thus seen to be the same day. The 
two, therefore, coincide as to time. But the 
taking hold of one man by seven women, which, 
literally understood, would signify very great 
degradation in morals, would certainly be very 
distant from the scene of glory with which it is 
identified in the text. What can be the expla- 
nation ? Simply, the following, as we fully be- 
lieve : 

In the parallel passage in Micah, v., the 
mountain of the house of the Lord, or Israel 
restored, is called the daughter of Zion, to whom 


comes the first dominion. This is the United 
States, as we have seen. In Isa. iii. 16, we have 
the daughters of Zion, as many. These are the 
tribes, or States, of Israel restored, and rejected. 
In contradistinction with these daughters of 
Zion, we have the seven women, or tribes, or 
States, who secede from the sisterhood of these 
proud and oppressive daughters. These women 
are poorer than those proud ones, as indicated 
in iii. 15, and forsake the sisterhood of daught- 
ers, or States, to escape the oppression there 
stated. One after another of these seven wo- 
men, or States, secedes. They are separate from 
each other, and from a hostile world. Driven 
out of the national Union, they are feeble wo- 
men, helpless widows. After inheriting, with 
others, a national glory, preeminent in the world, 
will they be content with their isolated, feeble, 
reproachful condition ? Not at all. But being 
united in their exile, and in interest and sympa- 
thies and feeling, they will seek a strong and 
glorious common nationality to take the place of 
the one they have forsaken. 

The fulfilment of the passage is found in the 
seven seceding States forming the central gov- 
ernment of the Confederate States. This is, as 
we shall see, the man child of the daughter of 


Zion. What is here said of the branch of the 
Lord, and of every one, i. e., every tribe that is 
left in Zion living, when others die, as to the 
covenant, coincides with what is elsewhere said 
of the " remnant" of Israel restored, and divi- 
ded, and of the stone kingdom, and the one like 
unto the Son of man. We need not elaborate 
further, as many other more explicit passages 
will claim attention. It may be added in this 
connection, however, that, as the ten horns of 
the fourth beast, as Sir Isaac Newton says, 
whatever their number afterwards, they are 
still called ten kings, from their first number, 
so the number seven, so often applied in the 
prophecies to the final kingdom, represents all the 
States that follow them; though these, too, are, 
in addition, expressly mentioned, and their num- 
ber definitely given. 

Attention is now invited to the fourth and fifth 
chapters of the book of Micah 

The concluding verse of the third chapter may 
be understood as referring to old Israel in the type : 
" Therefore shall Zion for your sake be ploughed 
as a field, and Jerusalem shall become heaps, and 
the mountain of the house as the high places of 
the forest." This verse shows the identity of Zion 
and Jerusalem with the mountain, or mountain 


of the house, both in the type and the antitype. 
Verses 1-3 of chap, iv., form an almost literal 
quotation from Isa. ii. 2, 3. The exposition of 
that passage is applicable to this, with the excep- 
tion that the general prophecy is here divided into 
two paragraphs ; the former consisting of verses 
1 , 2, having special reference to Israel restored, 
or the United States; the latter, consisting of 
verses 3-5, having particular application to the 
remnant left after the division. 

"In that day" referring to what immediately 
precedes, "saith the Lord, I will assemble her 
that halteth, and I will gather her that is driven 
out, and her that I have afflicted, and I will make 
her that halteth a remnant, and her that was cast 
far off a strong nation ; and the Lord shall reign 
over them in mount Zion from henceforth, even 
for ever." (Verses 6, 7 ) 

The remnant here mentioned, is plainly the 
remnant or portion of a people. It could not be 
the whole of the people referred to. Such an 
application of the term remnant would be absurd. 
The remnant must be a portion, and the smaller 
portion reserved when the larger part is cast off; 
and cast off because the remnant was cast off by 
this controlling majority. The casting far off 
denotes a sectional separation wide and perma- 


nent. It does not mean a driving away to the 
ends of the earth into captivity. The fact that 
the remnant becomes a strong nation, and is un- 
der the direct control of the Lord of hosts, would 
forbid this interpretation. The remnant is said 
to become, under a Divine guidance, a nation — 
a strong nation. The remnant was then a portion 
of the people ; it is now separated, and becomes a 
strong nation under the reign of the Lord. This 
reign is perpetual, everlasting. The locality of 
this reign is mount Zion. And this fact, together 
with that which precedes and which follows the 
text, signifies that this strong nation is the rem- 
nant of Israel restored in the last days. This 
remnant — this strong nation, over which the Lord 
will reign for ever, is none other than the stone 
cut out of the mountain, or the one like the Son 
of man. They are positively identified by the 
same character of strength, and the same per- 
petual, everlasting reign of Almighty God. This 
position is rendered more indubitably sure by the 
connection following, and by other passages to 
come under review. This division of Israel re- 
stored is yet more clearly exhibited under the 
figure of the birth of a man child. 

"And thou, tower of the flock ! the strong- 
hold of the daughter of Zion, unto thee it shall 


come, even the first dominion ; the kingdom shall 
come to the daughter of Jerusalem." (Verse 8.) 
The tower of the flock is the central government 
for the oversight and protection of the restored 
Israel, or flock of the Lord. The term stronghold 
signifies further, the strength and glory of the 
nationality represented as the daughter of Zion. 
Our Saviour declared to the literal Jews that the 
kingdom should be taken from them, and given 
to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof. 
The fact that this kingdom is given to a nation, 
clearly shows that it is not a spiritual, but a civil 
kingdom ; the Divine civil government of the 
Hebrew commonwealth revived in the antitype. 
To Israel restored the mountain of the Lord's 
house established in the top of the mountains, or 
the United States, comes the first dominion. Not 
with the original old Zion, but with the daughter 
of Zion, the daughter of Jerusalem, is this first 
dominion, or first manifestation of the Divine 
kingdom in the antitype. 

"Now why dost thou cry out aloud ? is there 
no king in thee ? is thy counsellor perished V 
One is almost ready to ask, Where are thy Clays 
and Calhouns and Websters? "Where are the 
strong arms upon which thou hast leaned here- 
tofore ? Where are the great leaders to whom 


thou hast looked for guidance in times of distress 
and danger ? Verily, the time of Zion's trouble 
is come. "For pangs have taken thee as a wo- 
man in travail. Be in pain, and labour to bring 
forth, daughter of Zion, like a woman in tra- 
vail : for now shalt thou go forth out of the city, 
and thou shalt dwell in the field, and there thou 
shalt be delivered ; there shall the Lord redeem 
thee from the hand of thine enemies." (Verse 10.) 
Though in the sudden birth of the new nation- 
ality there may truly be said to have been no 
preceding travail, in the way of war and carnage, 
the ordinary antecedents of a new government, 
yet in another sense Zion travailed before she 
brought forth. And every reader will at once 
realize the appropriateness of this expressive 
figure, in its application to the last several years 
of the history of the United States. 

The city out of which the daughter of Zion 
goes, is determined by the whole connection, es- 
pecially verse 8, to be Jerusalem in the antitype, 
so often spoken of by the prophets. This is in- 
habited after the departure of the daughter by 
her child, as heir to the inheritance, and styled 
in verse 7 the remnant, and the strong nation. 
The going out into the field, does not signify a 
local removal, but is the antithesis of the casting 


off of the remnant in verse 7. It is the same in 
meaning as to locality, with the promise, "I will 
remove far off the northern army." (Joel ii. 20.) 
This going out of Jerusalem, is a departure in 
spirit and principle, as we shall hereafter more 
clearly see from the covenant of Israel restored. 
Her going into the field signifies her exclusion 
from the shelter of God's protection and blessing, 
as his peculiar people. Her going even to 
Babylon, denotes so thorough a departure on the 
part of the daughter of Zion from her original 
condition as the Israel of God, as that she goes 
into captivity to the very opposite spirit and prin- 
ciple. This is illustrated in the fact before re- 
ferred to, that the stone, though cut out of the 
mountain after the toes of the image appear, yet 
strikes the feet of the image; denoting a recon- 
struction of the empire; a reconstruction in 
spirit, and without reference to locality and form. 
That the whole spirit and character of that 
series of empires is found in this reconstruction, 
is plain from the fact already stated, that the 
"brass, and silver, and gold, as well as the iron 
and clay," are found in the feet when stricken 
by the stone, (Dan. ii. 35,) ; as also from the fact 
stated, (chap. vii. 12,) that when the dominion 
of these great beasts is taken away, "their lives 


were prolonged for a season and a time." The 
whole spirit of the old empires is found in the 
final conflict between liberty and despotism. And 
now we may appeal to the reader as to the appli- 
cation of this to the United States, since the rise 
of the Confederate States. Read the message of 
President Lincoln to the called session of Con- 
gress on the fourth of the present month, (July, 
1861,) and look at the consolidated despotism 
arising on the destruction of the rights of States 
as such. Note his attempted apologies for infrac- 
tions of the Constitution, in the invasion of the 
dearest personal and social rights, and his call for 
four hundred thousand men and four hun<#red 
millions of dollars for the subjugation of the new 
nationality of the South. See how this has been 
responded to by the Congressional approbation of 
even an additional hundred thousand men, and a 
hundred million dollars more than required. Con- 
sider also the participation of the spirit of the Gov- 
ernment by the masses of the people. We ask then, 
is not the whole spirit of the old monarchies the 
spirit of despotism, of subjugation, and war, being 
rapidly developed in the United States, as one 
of the feet, thus to speak, of the image to be 
broken by the stone cut out of the mountain. 
The history of this spirit of monarchy, in its con- 


quest of Israel restored, is noted in the succeed- 
ing visions of Daniel. When it has prevailed, 
even in its more incipient stages in the govern- 
ment, the birth of this child of the daughter of 
Zion occurs. (Verse 10.) The redemption of 
Zion, after his birth, from the hand of her ene- 
mies, may point out the identity of the daughter 
of Zion, in her original character, with her son, 
and her redemption in him as representing the 
remnant that is saved, or it may mean the revival 
of the spirit of the Constitution in some of the States 
of the North, as the Western or Pacific States, re- 
sulting in a great war, in which the government 
will be overthrown. The promise is true in either 
application, as shall appear hereafter. 

The child that is born is determined, in chap, 
v. 4., to be a man child. His birth is also 
identified with that of children, as in Isa. lxvi. 
showing that he is one in one sense, and many in 
another sense, or many in one. It is also, as we 
believe, referred to in Jer. xv. 9., as in the con- 
nection we are expounding, as the birth of 
seven, in allusion to the seven original States in 
the dominion of the man child, " She that hath 
borne seven languisheth : she hath given up the 
ghost; her sun is gone down while it was yet day." 
Alas, for the fate of the daughter of Zion. The 


day of her trouble, ay, of her death, as to the 
covenant of God's Israel, has come. 

The time of the birth of this child of the 
daughter of Zion is fixed in chapter v. 1, 2. 
"But thou Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be 
little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of 
thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be 
ruler in Israel, whose goings forth have been 
from of old, even from everlasting." This is applied 
in Matt. ii. 6, to the birth of the Divine Re- 
deemer personally. He is here characterized as 
he that is to be (hereafter) ruler in Israel, when 
Israel shall be restored as the final kingdom. 

"Therefore will he, 'the Saviour,' give them 
up until the time that she which travaileth, 
hath brought forth. Then shall the remnant of 
his brethren return unto the children of Israel." 

Those given up by our Saviour are his breth- 
ren after the flesh, the people among whom he 
was born. They are here distinguished from 
" the children of Israel," showing that Israel in 
the antitype is different from the literal old type. 
The children of Israel are not the Church, as 
such, being plainly identified with the remnant 
that becomes a strong nation, v 7, and with 
the child of the daughter of Zion. It is said 
here that when this birth occurs, then the rem- 


nant of his brethren shall return to the children 
of Israel. Thus the kingdom that, according to 
the Saviour's assertion, was to be taken from 
these literal brethren, has come as to its first 
dominion to the daughter of Zion, identified 
with the "mountain of the Lord's house," or 
the United States, and passes in its final domin- 
ion to her son, who synchronizes with the stone 
kingdom, or the Confederate States. It then 
finds a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof, 
as will more and more fully appear, as we believe, 
in the future history of the new nationality that 
has so suddenly and gloriously risen up in the 

To his literal brethren our Saviour said, " Be- 
hold your house is left unto you desolate ; and 
verily I say unto you, Ye shall not see me until 
the time come when ye shall say, Blessed is he 
that cometh in the name of the Lord." Luke 
xiii. 35. The time of his absence and their 
desolation is the period during which he is said, 
in the passage under consideration, to "give 
them up." He that cometh in the name of the 
Lord is the child of the daughter of Zion, com- 
ing in the name of the Lord, and bearing his 
name, as the nationality in which he rules. Or 
if this phrase be applied to the Saviour himself, 


as in some passages in the Evangelists, then it is 
to him, as coming in the glory of ljis final reign, 
when the language of the multitude is specially 
appropriate: " Blessed is the king that cometh 
in the name of the Lord : peace in heaven and 
glory in the highest." Luke xix. 38. The Jews 
rejected him in his humiliation, and were " given 
up " to unbelief. The vail will remain upon 
their hearts until they see him in the glory of 
the final kingdom. Then shall the remnant of 
his brethren return unto the children of Israel. 

The mart child of the daughter of Zion spoken 
of in the passage under discussion, is not born 
until after our Saviour's personal advent, nor 
until he has long given up his literal brethren, 
nor until near the time of their conversion, in 
which conversion he is said to be instrumental, 
as will doubtless be seen in the future. This 
period is, as the whole connection shows, that 
of the division of Israel restored, and the rise of 
the sixth kingdom, or Confederate States. 

" And he shall stand and feed in the strength 
of the Lord, in the majesty of the name of the 
Lord his G-od ; and they shall abide; for now 
shall he be great unto the ends of the earth. 
And this man shall be the peace when the Assy- 
sian shall come into our land; and when he 


shall tread in our palaces then shall we raise 
against him seven shepherds and eight principal 
men/' or, as the margin reads, "princes of 
men." v. 4, 5. 

This passage cannot possibly refer literally, to 
the old Assyrian power. The unbroken connec- 
tion in which it stands, places its fulfilment 
after the birth of our Savior, and even late in 
gospel times. The man who is to be our peace, 
must be the one just spoken of, as having been 
born. The Assyrian power had passed away 
before the birth of our Savior, much more before 
the birth of the son of Zion, mentioned in 
verse 3. " Besides," as Scott says, " Senacher- 
rib's invasion was not repelled by the rulers or 
chieftains of Israel ; 2 Kings, 19—35 ; nor did 
the Jews ever invade or waste the Assyrian do- 
minions, or those of the Chaldeans, who after- 
wards occupied the same regions, it seems evi- 
dent that these expressions must be understood 
as mystically intending other enemies of the 
church, who should be of the same spirit with 
Senaeherrib and the Assyrians." 

The whole connection shows that the oppressed 
people mentioned here, is the final " remnant" 
of Israel restored, chap. iv. 7, represented by 
the man child of the daughter of Zion, and that the 


Assyrian is the power attempting the subjuga- 
tion of this remnant in the spirit of Senacherrib, 
and the Assyrians who invaded ancient Israel. 
This is identical with the reconstructed Roman 
empire of the feet image, in which is found the 
gold of the head, or Assyrian empire, as well as 
all the other metals of the image. And other 
passages show that this final embodiment of the 
Assyrian spirit is found in Israel restored and 
rejected, and endeavoring to conquer the rem- 

He who is to be the peace, refers to the child 
of the daughter of Zion last spoken of, verse 3, 
with reference, too, to the personal Savior, who, 
as sitting on the right hand of power, reigns 
with the man ehild> and invisibly guides and sus- 
tains him in his dominion, according to the dec- 
laration in verse 2, " who is to be ruler in Israel." 
" Then shall we raise against him seven shep- 
herds." The term " we" here refers to the rem- 
nant of Israel restored. The shepherds are the 
tribes of this remnant, in allusion to the occupa- 
tion of the sons of Jacob, as the original heads 
of the tribes, and signifying, also, a very mild, 
beneficent sort of government. Seven shepherds 
and eight principal men, not meaning fifteen, 
but simply ad-ding one to the seven, because of 


his importance, and as, perchance, representing 
another class. The seven shepherds are tribes 
of the remnant of Israel restored, already under 
the peaceful dominion of the man child of Zion. 
The one added agrees in spirit with the shep- 
herds, but does not occupy the same position 
with the shepherds. And yet, in another sense, 
he does occupy the same position ; for though 
not numbered with the seven as shepherds, yet, 
when they are spoken of as princes of men, 
which phrase signifies government of some sort, 
he is numbered with them. This enumeration, 
taking place in immediate connection with the 
invasion of the "Assyrian," signifies that the 
eighth is added partly, if not wholly, because of 
military power. The distinguishing of this 
eighth from the seven, and yet identification 
with them, seems to intimate that it is one of 
the tribes of Israel, not yet formally included in 
the remnant. 

When the Government of the United States, 
as Israel restored, and rejected, had so far im- 
bibed the Assyrian spirit as to undertake the 
subjugation of the remnant that had gone out, 
represented by the seven shepherds, or original 
Confederate States, the Convention of the 'State 
of Virginia at once adopted the ordinance of se- 


cession. Vice-President Stephens was dis- 
patched to confer with the Convention ; and, in 
his message to the called session of Congress, 
President Davis announced that a Convention 
had been concluded, by which the vast military- 
power of Virginia was added to that of the seven 
original States. The action of Virginia, the 
great mother of States and of statesmen, is men- 
tioned also by President Lincoln, in his message 
to Congress on the fourth of July, 1861, as ex- 
ceedingly important. The secession of Virginia 
was hailed with rapturous delight by the people 
of the seceded States, while it rendered the sub- 
jugation of the Confederate States even more 
certainly an impossibility. This great State is 
also a representative of the entire lour, included 
in the second secession ; all which are included, 
as we shall see in another passage, with the seven 
original States. 

" And they shall waste (or eat up, as the mar- 
gin reads,) the land of Assyria with the sword, 
and the land of Nimrod in the entrances thereof, 
(or, as the margin reads, with her own naked 
swords,) thus shall he deliver us from the Assyrian 
when he cometh into our land." 

This land of Assyria is the same antitype of 
old " Assyria" above referred to, and we consid- 


er the passage as indicating that the Confederate 
States will be abundantly successful in resisting 
the power which seeks the overthrow of their 
independence. If the marginal reading, "with 
her own naked, or unsheathed swords," be cor- 
rect, and we do not insist upon it, then it points 
to a civil war in the North before the present 
scene of indignation and trouble shall have 
passed by. Whether this marginal rendering be 
admissible or not, we believe the passage to em- 
brace this whole " time of trouble," and to re- 
ceive illustration from the breaking of the feet 
of the image by the stone cut out of the moun- 

The people thus delivered, are the remnant of 
Jacob in the antitype, spoken of in verses 7, 8, 
and the succeeding part of the chapter. 

The character of the government of this rem- 
nant is intimated. The term, " we will raise 
up," etc., must be applied to the people, and at- 
tributing to them great power, signifies a peo- 
ples' government. The seven shepherds are the 
tribe, or state government, the child of the 
daughter of Zion, who coincides with the rem- 
nant, and is the means of peace, by successfully 
resisting invasion in the confederate government. 
The connection of the Divine Eedeemer with it, 


as ruler in Israel, shows that it is his Kingdom, 
in which he reigns, though invisibly. Thus it 
is written, " In that day shall the Lord be for 
a crown of glory, and for a diadem of beauty, 
unto the residue of his people. And for a 
spirit of judgment to him that sitteth in judg- 
ment ; and for strength to them that turn the 
battle to the gate." That such has been the 
case with the Confederate States, as the " resi- 
due" of the restored Israel, or "people" of the 
Lord, we appeal to the reader for proof. The 
great wisdom that has guided the government, 
and its" amazing success in arms, have elicited 
attention and remark, not only in this country, 
but in Europe. That such will be the case 
hereafter, the prophecies, we believe, abundantly 

That this whole section of Micah's prophecy 
coincides with the visions of the mountain, and 
the stone cut of the mountain, and of the An- 
cient of days, and the one like the Son of man, 
is plain, not only from the details we have re- 
ferred to, but from the fact that, substantially, 
the same things are said here of the " remnant 
of Jacob" that are stated as to the sixth king* 
dom in the visions. 




Zechariah's prophecies — Division of the Union — Bor- 
der States as the slain shepherds — The eleven States 
as "the third" — The divided mountain — Ezek. xxxiv. 
— The gathered flock judged and divided— Isa. Ixv. 
11-16 — The Northern army — The American flag — 
Division — Contrast — One like the Son of man — 
Character of the government — Hove established — 
When it appears. 

We invite attention to some passages in the 
prophecies of Zechariah, in reference to the 
division of the restored Israel of God. The 
date of this book is placed from 520 to 500 B. C, 
about two hundred years after the division of 
Israel and Judah. 

Zechariah is regarded as a very obscure pro- 
phet, not only in language and imagery, but as 
to the application and import of his predictions. 
The main reason why he is so hard to be under- 
stood, as we believe, is that he had more refer- 
ence in his prophecies to Israel in the antitype 


than in the old type. And we are of opinion 
that, among other prophecies having reference 
to these latter times, he predicts, with sufficient 
distinctness, the division of the American Union 
as the modern Israel of God. This division is 
represented in chapter xi. under the idea of the 
breaking of two staves. 

One staff is called Beauty, and represents the 
covenant between God and the people. The 
other is called Bands, and symbolizes the union 
of the tribes. "And I took my staff, even 
Beauty, and cut it asunder, that I might break 
my covenant which I had made with all the 
people." Zech. xi. 10. "Then I cut asunder mine 
other staff, even Bands, that I might break the 
brotherhood between Judah and Israel." Verse 
14. Archbishop Newcome says of this verse : 
" I cannot explain this passage without supposing 
that the kingdom of of Israel subsisted when 
the prophet wrote it, and that either the wars 
between Judah and Israel are referred to, or the 
captivity of the ten tribes when the brotherly 
connection between these kingdoms ceased." 

Dr. Clarke says, in the close of his notes on 
this chapter : " There are several things in this 
chapter that are very obscure, and we can hardly 
say what opinion is right, nor is it at all clear 


whether they refer to a very early or late period 
in Jewish history." 

The great difficulty here is, that the prophet 
set forth in the breaking of the sticks the divi- 
sion of Israel, and yet he lived long after that 
division took place in the type. If, however, 
the transaction be referred to Israel in the anti- 
type, or the United States, it will be, as we 
think, more easily understood, especially in view 
of the memorable fact recorded in connection 
with it, in verses eighth and ninth : "Three shep- 
herds also I cut off in one month ; and my soul 
loathed them, (or, as the margin reads, was 
straitened for them,) and their soul also abhorred 
me. Then said I, I will not feed you : that that 
dieth, let it die; and that that is to be cut off, 
let it be cut off; and let the rest eat every one 
the flesh of another." 

The three shepherds, answering, though, in a 
different position, to the "seven shepherds," here- 
tofore referred to, are three of the tribes of Israel 
restored. They are Maryland, Kentucky, and Mis- 
souri, for the present excluded from covenant 
of the final "Judah." They refused to come 
with the seceding States until the arm of federal 
power interposed to hold them back, as at this 
day. They are "cut off" from the covenant of 


Judah, in contradistinction from the tribes of 
Israel that die as to the covenant, as signifying 
that they shall arise from the dust of the earth, 
when this time of trouble shall end in the over- 
throw of the power that oppresses them. 

" Let the rest eat the flesh one of another." 
This points, as we believe, to the fearful conflict 
to take place among the States of the North, 
resulting in the three-fold division of their gen- 
eral government. Then, and not until then, will 
the slain shepherds arise. Not one of the bor- 
der States will be able, as we believe, to enter 
the Southern Confederacy until that time. This 
opinion was expressed as early as the 13th of 
June, in the city of Houston, Texas, and is 
written here on the 31st day of July, 1861. 
This conclusion is based simply on this and other 
prophecies referring to these States. 

This division is represented numerically as to 
the tribes or States, in chapter xiii. 7, 8, 9 : 
"Awake, sword, against my Shepherd, and 
against the man that is my fellow, (or, as Clarke 
renders it, ' upon the strong man/ or ' the hero 
that is with me,') saith the Lord of hosts : smite 
the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered ; 
and I will turn mine hand upon the little ones. 
And it shall come to pass, that in all the land, 


saith the Lord, two parts therein shall be cut off 
and die; but the third shall be left therein. 
And I will bring the third part through the fire, 
and will refine them as silver is refined, and will 
try them as gold is tried : they shall call on my 
name, and I will hear them : I will say, It is my 
people; and they shall say, The Lord is my 

The phrase, "smite the Shepherd, and the 
sheep shall be scattered," is quoted by our 
Saviour in application to his condition when his 
disciples all forsook him and fled. But this 
could not be the final fulfilment of the whole 
passage ; for, instead of the fleeing of all the 
sheep, "two parts" are cut off and die, while "the 
third" remains. Besides, the phrase " in all 
the land" decides the final fulfilment to be of a 
national character. If the prophecy be carried 
forward to the destruction of Jerusalem, is it 
true that two-thirds in all the land of Judea 
were then cut off and died ? Is it true that the 
remaining third were brought through the fire 
and purified, and made the faithful servants of 
God ? This has assuredly not been realized in 
view of their persevering rejection of the Saviour, 
and, as we have seen, the veil will not be taken 
from their hearts until the fulness of the Gen- 


tiles is brought in, or the man child of the 
daughter of Zion, representing the final king- 
dom, appears, when they will return to the 
children of Israel. 

We have seen that the whole passage cannot 
apply to the Saviour personally, and that it was 
not fulfilled in the destruction of Jerusalem. 
But if it be connected with the division of 
Israel restored, signified, as we have seen, by the 
breaking of the sticks or covenants, then the 
meaning is easy and plain. The sword of Divine 
judgment smites the shepherd when the stick 
called Beauty is cut asunder, signifying that 
God's covenant with all the people, or Israel as 
a whole, is broken. " He thus shall accomplish 
to scatter the power of the holy people;" at the 
end and completion of prophetic vision, (see 
Dan. xii. 7,) the passage under review is ful- 
filled. Thus, when the United States Govern- 
ment, as the Ancient of days, is smitten, thirty- 
three States compose the Union. They are 
arranged in three classes : (I.) Those that die 
as to the covenant, as the coercion States of the 
North. (2.) Those that are cut off, as the three 
shepherds or border States; and the eleven 
Confederate States as " the third," which 
are even now being brought through the 


fire, in order to their purification : not as to their 
whole individual population, but as constituting 
the nationality of the final kingdom, in which 
the Lord rules. 

In ch. xiv. 1-5, the division is represented 
geographically as to " the inhabited places of the 
country:" " Behold, the day of the Lord coin- 
eth, and thy spoil shall be divided in the midst 
of thee. For I will gather all nations against 
Jerusalem to battle." The term "earth" is in 
very numerous instances used for the land of Israel. 
See Symbolical Die. In a corresponding sense, 
the term nations or nations of the earth signifies 
simply the tribes or states of Israel restored. It 
was not true of the army of Titus, that it in- 
cluded all nations. But in the struggle which 
precipitated the fall of the Jerusalem of the 
prophets, or our Israel restored, all the classes 
of States — the aggressive States, the Southern 
States, those that promptly seceded, and those 
that did not — all in their several measures of 
policy contributed to this division. We need 
not enlarge here. 

And " the city," or general government, shall be 
taken, and the " houses," or State governments, 
which are included in the city, rifled of their 
innocent, unaggressive character, and animated 


by the spirit of fratricidal war, and "the women," 
it may be churches, ravished of their innocence 
and purity, as to enter heartily into the war for 
the coercion and subjugation of the States of the 
South. Thus, as we have seen, the Church idea 
is often presented in the prophecies of Israel 
restored, and such may be the meaning here. 
Now, whether we can hit the meaning in all the 
particulars or not, as it may be more a general 
than a particular description, we believe that the 
general idea of the conquest of Israel restored 
by the old monarchical principle, as set forth in 
other prophetic visions, to be involved here. 

"And half of the city shall go forth into cap- 
tivity." Allusion is had, in using the term 
" half," to the statement above : " Thy spoil 
shall be divided in the midst of thee ;" and to 
the division of the mountain, when " half goes 
to the north and half to the south," including 
specially those States most thoroughly over- 
come by the despotic principle, now being 
rapidly developed in the United States Gov- 
ernment. Thus it is written in Revelation, 
as we believe, in the same application, " He that 
leadeth into captivity shall go into captivity : he 
that killeth with the sword must be killed with 
the sword." 


"Then shall the Lord go forth and fight 
against those nations/' or States, "as he fought in 
the day of battle." He will interpose in giving 
aid to the arms of the residue, just as he did in 
the wars of his people in former times. The 
war is, in our judgment, the one now in pro- 
gress. The amazing success at Great Bethel, 
Bull Kun, Manassas, and indeed, throughout 
the war thus far, is a comment on this and kind- 
red predictions. Never, surely, since the wars 
of God's ancient people, has there been such 
remarkable and uniform success against such 
tremendous odds, and with such terror and dis- 
may to the foe. The explanation is found in 
the fact that the Lord goes forth to fight against 
the coercion foes of his peculiar people. Thus 
it has been, and thus it will be to the close of 
the war. 

"And his feet shall stand in that day upon the 
Mount of Olives, which is before Jerusalem, on 
the east, and the mount of Olives shall cleave 
in the midst thereof toward the East and to- 
ward the west, and there shall be a very great 
valley, and half of the mountain shall re- 
move toward the north, and half of it toward 
the south. And ye shall flee to the valley of the 


Our Saviour ascended from the literal Mount 
of Olives, and he shall stand on that mountain, 
or government, typified by the literal mount 
when he comes to reign. The Mount of Olives 
is here used as typical of the first dominion of 
Israel restored, or the mountain of the house of 
the Lord. This is, as we have seen, the United 
States. When he thus stands on the mount, it 
divides assunder, half toward the north, and 
half of it toward the south. And the complete- 
ness of this division is signified by the great 
valley that intervenes, and by the fact that that 
valley lies now between two mountains which 
were parts of the same mountain. " And ye 
shall flee to the valley of the mountains," just as 
the border States have done, with the result 
shadowed forth in the figure of the three slain 
shepherds, which certainly accords with the 
facts as they now exist. 

We have given what we doubt not is the true 
exposition of the text. The literal Mount of 
Olives cannot be referred to. Is it necessary to 
attempt to refute the supposition of Dr. Clarke 
that this text refers to the lines of circumvalla- 
tion drawn by Titus in the seige of Jerusalem, 
represented as dividing the mount in twain, and 
forming a great valley between them? That in- 


terpetation was given because no other could then 
be found. The transaction is the cutting of the 
stone out of the mountain, and accordingly sub- 
stantially the same things are said to follow the 
event here described, as are said of the stone 
kingdom in Dan. ii. 

We have noticed only some of the main points 
in the remarkable prophecy of Zechariah, re- 
specting the division of the modern Israel of 
God. We cannot now undertake to explain all 
the items contained in these chapters, though 
we believe that the whole connection is consist- 
ent with the exposition we have given. The 
prophecy coincides in meaning, as we doubt not, 
with numerous other predictions of the momen- 
tous events of these troublous times. 

In further proof of the division of Israel in 
the antitype, we refer to Ezek. xxxiv. 12 : "As 
a shepherd seeketh out his flock in the day that 
he is among his sheep that are scattered, so will 
I seek out my sheep, and will deliver them out 
of all places where they have been scattered in 
the cloudy and dark day, and I will bring them 
out from the people, and gather them from 
the countries and will bring them to their 
own land, and feed them upon the moun- 
tains of Israel, by the rivers, and in all the in- 


habited places of the country." Here is the 
restoration of Israel in the antitype. There fol- 
lows, however, a discrimination and judgment 
" between cattle and cattle," between one part of 
the flock and the other. The one is called the 
fat cattle, the other the lean cattle. 

God expostulates with and reproaches the 
fat ones, thus : " Seenieth it a small thing unto 
you to have eaten up the good pasture, but ye 
must tread down with your feet the residue of 
your pastures, and to have drunk of the deep 
waters, but ye must foul the residue with your 
feet. And as for my flock, they eat that which 
ye have trodden with your feet, and they drink 
that which ye have fouled with your feet." Verses 
18, ly. No illustration could more fully express 
the fact that the great Northern States have 
grown fat by the union, while, at the same time, 
abusing the poorer and weaker States of the 
South, which have, to a large extent, sustained 
and enriched them. Addressing these fat and 
aggressive ones in favor of the lean ones, it is 
continued, " Behold I, even I, will judge be- 
tween the fat cattle and between the lean cattle. 
Because ye have thrust with side and with 
shoulder, and pushed all the diseased with your 
horns, till ye have scattered them abroad, there- 


fore will I save my flock, and they shall be no 
more a prey, and I will judge between cattle 
and cattle. And I will set up one shepherd 
over them, even my servant David : he shall feed 
them and he shall be their shepherd, and I the 
Lord will be their God, and my servant David a 
prince among them. 

Here we have Israel restored in the glorious 
antitype, and a discrimination made between the 
fat cattle and the lean cattle. And while in this 
solemn judgment of the flock the former are 
cast oiF, the latter are saved as a remnant, and 
David in the antitype, or the Saviour, is set over 
them. A covenant of peace is established with 
them, and they are to be delivered from all 
" evil beasts," or oppressors. It is promised 
that they shall be a blessing, and that there shall 
be showers of blessing — that the tree of the 
field shall yield her fruit, and the earth shall 
yield her increase. These and many other 
blessings are promised in the connection under 
consideration. A scene of peace and happiness 
and glory follows the division of the flock, and 
in connection with the remnant that is saved 
similar to that described of the stone, and the 
one like the son of man. In the one as in the 


others, we have the kingdom in which the 
Saviour rules. 

Of the same import with the passages we have 
noticed is that contained in Isaiah lxv. 11—14 : 
"But ye are they that forsake the Lord, that for- 
get my holy mountain, that prepare a table for 
that troop, and furnish the drink-offering unto 
that number. Therefore will I number you to 
the sword, and ye shall all bow down to the 
slaughter : because when I called, ye did not an- 
swer; when I spake, ye did not hear; but did 
evil before mine eyes, and did choose that where- 
in I delighted not. Therefore saith the Lord 
God, Behold, my servants shall eat, but ye shall 
be hungry : behold, my servants shall drink, but 
ye shall be thirsty : behold, my servants shall re- 
joice, but ye shall be ashamed : behold, my ser- 
vants shall sing for joy of heart, but ye shall cry 
for sorrow of heart, and shall howl for vexation 
of spirit. And ye shall leave your name for a 
curse unto my chosen : for the Lord God shall 
slay thee, and call his servants by another name." 

That those addressed here had belonged to the 
Israel of God, is plain from the fact that they 
are rebuked for forgetting him, and forsaking his 
holy mountain. That they had been called by 
the same name with the "servants" mentioned, 


is plain from the fact that these latter are now 
to be called by another name. The scene is laid, 
as the connection shows, in common with most 
of the prophecies of Isaiah, in the latter times. 
And here is the vision of the restored Israel, fol- 
lowed by a scene of glory that we have found 
elsewhere. Here is presented a striking contrast 
between those rebuked and cast off, represented 
by Ezekiel as the fat cattle, and those styled the 
Lord's servants or chosen, over whom he will 
reign. That contrast between the old nationality 
and the new has already commenced, and it will 
undoubtedly widen with the flight of months and 

Those cast off are specially reproached, as pre- 
paring "a table for that troop," and as furnish- 
ing "the drink offering for that number." The 
troop is the great coercion army attempting the 
subjugation of the States of the South, which as 
being sustained at enormous expense, renders 
mention of the preparing of a table for it the 
more impressive. 

A note in Bagster's Bible says, that "an in- 
finite number of dissertations" have been written 
on " that number," (meni,) mentioned here as an 
object of idolatrous regard ; and after stating 
the utter fruitlessness of all inquiry on the sub- 


ject, significantly asks among other questions, Is 
it a number of stars here meant? We answer, 
It is we believe, the number of thirty four stars 
emblazoned on the American flag, and to which 
extraordinary honors have been paid. A divine 
of the North, recently said in a grave religious 
convention, " We almost worship the flag." This 
witness is true. It has been suspended across 
the streets of towns and cities — has floated from 
the tops of private houses and public buildings, 
and even the temples of religious worship. It 
has been, it is said, in some instances — few we 
trust — even spread upon the communion table. 
The " drink-offering of blood," to use the language 
of the Psalmist, has been poured out in its honor. 
How many have perished in sustaining that flag, 
even as (he symbol of oppression and fratricidal 
war ! 

The Ancient of days is employed by the Al- 
mighty in judging European despotism, and par- 
ticularly the Papal power. The sitting of this 
judgment is, as we have seen, according to some 
writers, taken from the grand sanhedrim, with 
its president, representing the Federal Govern- 
ment, and the consistory sitting around, all united 
in the deliberation and sentence of judgment. 
At the close of the probationary period involved 


in "the first dominion" of Israel restored, the 
tribes themselves are judged, as to their covenant 
of loyalty to God and his word, and of equality 
kindness, and justice, among themselves. Those 
tribes that forsake God and forget his holy moun- 
tain, are as seen in the quotation from Isaiah, al- 
ready examined, cast off. The other tribes as a 
remnant, retain the covenant blessings of God's 
peculiar people, and inherit the final glorious 
kingdom. Among the reasons for this casting 
off, are their forsaking God — substituting opinion 
and sentiment for Divine authority; and the 
coercion war, it would seem, seals the sentence 
of exclusion from the heritage of God. They 
are specially reproached with the feeding of that 
troop, and thus making war upon their sister 
States. Cast off, they go into captivity to the 
old monarchical principle. Endeavoring to sub- 
jugate others, they are subjugated themselves. 
And their central government, built upon the 
destruction of the rights of States, becomes in- 
deed, in part at least, the reorganized Roman 
empire. Thus in the king's vision, it is to be in- 
ferred that the stone is cut out of the mountain, 
because of a change in the character of the 
mountain. And we think that it will be found 
to be true, that in every other prophetic vision in 



which the Roman empire is found, its final ex- 
ploit is the conquest of the holy land in the anti- 
type, or the destruction of the "mighty and holy 
people." But we cannot, however, discuss the 
subject in this connection. 

" I saw in the night visions, and, behold, one 
like the Son of man came with the clouds of 
heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and 
they brought him near before him." Dan. vii. 18. 

The one like the Son of man is certainly the 
stone cut out of the mountain. It is the oppo- 
site of the beasts preceding it, and is the high- 
est ideal of free government, in spirit and in 
form. It is a glorious, powerful, christian re- 
public. It is also like the mountain, or Ancient 
of days — a federal republic. This is as certainly 
true of the stone, as of the mountain out of 
which it is taken. If the mountain be composed 
of States, the stone, which is part of it, must be 
composed of some of these States. Thus, in 
Daniel's vision, the one like the Son of man 
conies to the Ancient of days to signify that, in 
spirit, he agrees with him, receives the kingdom 
from him, and is really the Ancient of days, or 
Israel finally restored in the antitype. 

"And they brought him before him," i. e., be- 
fore the Ancient of days. The term " they" 


agrees, in sense, with the saints of the Most High, 
mentioned in verse 18. " But the saints of the 
Most High shall take the kingdom, and possess the 
kingdom for ever, even for ever and ever." It 
will be observed that the same preeminent, uni- 
versal, and everlasting dominion attributed to 
the one like the Son of man is, in verse 18, as- 
cribed to the saints of the Most High. These 
saints are, according to Dr. Clarke, supreme, holy 
ones; or, as Bishop Newton styles them, holy 

These supreme saints can hardly be consid- 
ered in their personal character as taking the 
kingdom, or as bringing the one like the Son of 
man before the Ancient of days. If individual 
saints be meant in the word kaddishai here 
used, their governmental action must be had in 
organized form. But a man is often used as a 
symbol of government. Thus, the four success- 
ive monarchies are together embodied in the 
image of a man, The ancient people of God 
were called Israel, the name of their father. 
The tribe of Judah is called Judah; and in the 
Revelation, the men who worship the beast and 
his image are, as we believe, not individual men, 
but states, or governments. A saint, as a symbol 
of government, would represent a very mild, un- 


oppressive christian rule. If, then, the word rep- 
resents them individually, they must be embod- 
ied, in order to take the kingdom. And if the 
term saints, or holy ones, be used in a symbolic 
sense, as signifying governments, the same is 
true. These saints, as a portion of Israel re- 
stored, are the " remnant" tribes spoken of else- 
where. Thus, in ancient times, Israel acted by 
tribes. It is predicted of the restoration in 
christian times, " Thou shall be gathered one by 
one, ! Israel." Thus, cooperation of the 
States utterly failed, in. both the first and second 
secessions; and every State, or tribe, acted in 
accordance with the prophecy, by and for itself. 
Thus, too, in the judgment of the tribes, when, 
as in Ezekiel, God is represented as judging be- 
tween one part of the flock and the other, they 
must stand alone, just as in the final personal 
judgment, every one of us must give account of 
himself unto God. It would be entirely absurd 
to understand the prophecy literally, that the 
Jews will be gathered, one by one, individually, 
to their land. Those coming, one by one, are 
the tribes, or States, in the final restoration. The 
tribes acting one by one form a central govern- 
ment. The one like the Son of man, is thus 
many in one — a king with many crowns — a glo- 


rious federative republic. The one like the Son 
of man is brought near before the Ancient. He 
is thus seen as agreeing with him in spirit. Em- 
bodying now the whole spirit of Israel restored, 
he succeeds to the entire inheritance, and re- 
ceives the supreme dominion. The Ancient, as 
synchronizing with the mountain, the daughter 
of Zion, or Israel restored, receives the " first 
dominion," or embodiment of the kingdom ta- 
ken from the Jews, as the type. The one like 
the Son of man, agreeing with the stone cut out 
of the mountain, the man child of the daughter 
of Zion, the remnant, after the division of Israel, 
receives "dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, 
that all people, nations, and languages, should 
serve him. His dominion is an everlasting do- 
minion, which shall not pass away, and his king- 
dom that which shall not be destroyed." Dan. 
vii. 14. 

As in the representations of Israel restored, 
we generally have the ideas of the state and of 
the church, so in this final symbol. The one 
like the Son of man is the civil department of 
the final Israel; the clouds of heaven, with 
which he comes, represent the ecclesiastical de- 
partment. The term clouds, as being plural, 
signifies division in this latter department, and 

IN PROPmiCY. 129 

represents the churches existing in the final gov- 
ernment at the time of its rise. Thus, our Sa- 
viour comes " sitting on the right hand of power, 
with the clouds of heaven." The " clouds of 
heaven" are the churches, the power, the civil 
government, and the Saviour sits on the right 
hand of this power, as "the spirit of judgment 
unto him that sitteth in judgment, and the 
spirit of strength unto them that turn the battle 
to the gates." 

What is the time of the rise of the final king- 
dom ? In the prophecies of Micah, which we 
have referred to, the man child of the daughter 
of Zion, or the restored Israel, is born, when 
she has passed under the control of the Babylo- 
nish spirit. In the passage from Ezekiel, the 
remnant of the flock is saved, when the judg- 
ment of the flock "between the fat cattle and 
the lean cattle" takes place. Accordingly, in 
the vision of the Ancient of days, the judgment 
sits, and the books are opened. One of the 
books is the book of life for the tribes them- 
selves. Thus, in Isaiah, at the time of the ta- 
king hold of one man by seven women, when 
the branch of the Lord shall be glorious, it is 
said that " he that is left in Zion, and he that re- 
maineth in Jerusalem, shall be called holy, even 


every one that is written among the living in Je- 
rusalem," — the living tribes, when the others die, 
as to the covenant of Israel. Thus the angel said 
to Daniel, in reference to the time ot trouble, 
which has now commenced, that " thy people shall 
be delivered, even every one that shall be found 
written in the book." Thus, there is a book of 
life for the final Israel, in the great national 
judgment, just as there is to be in the final per- 
sonal judgment. At this judgment, some of 
the tribes, or States, are cast off, and others re- 
served in the final kingdom. This is the scat- 
tering of the power of the holy people, spoken 
of in Daniel xii. 7 : "It shall be for a time, 
times, and a half; and when he shall have accom- 
plished to scatter the power of the holy people, 
all these things shall be finished." 

It is also stated, Dan. vii. 25, 26, that they, the 
saints, " shall be given into his hand," (that of the 
little horn) " until a time and times and the divi- 
ding of time. But the judgment shall sit, and 
they shall take away his dominion to consume and 
to destroy it unto the end." Now the end, in the 
latter verse, is the time when the mystery is fin- 
ished. Thus the scattering of the power of the 
holy people, and the destruction of the little 
horn, agree as to time. Now, the judgment be- 


gins, as to the little horn, when the Ancient 
comes, and his destruction progresses to the end. 
See verses 21, 22, 25, 26. The event, as to the 
holy people, let it be noted, is not the gather- 
ing, but the scattering of their power. It is not 
the restoration of Israel, but the division of Is- 
rael. "When he shall have accomplished to 
scatter the power of the holy people, all these 
things shall be finished." As when Israel is 
thus divided, the remnant of the tribes that 
remain among the living, constitute, as we have 
seen, the final kingdom, it follows that the rise 
of that kingdom is at the "end." Thus the 
three events agree in time : the destruction of the 
little horn, the scattering of the power of the 
holy people, and the rise of the final king- 
dom. All these occur too, at the close of the 
great prophetic periods. 

According to the understanding of many in- 
terpreters of prophecy, these prophetic periods 
cannot be far from their close. Within the past 
few months the three events have transpired 
which mark the end. The power of the little 
htSrn has been broken in the absorption of the 
States of the Church in the united kingdom of 
Italy. " The power of the holy people," called 


in chap. viii. 24, " the mighty and the holy peo- 
ple," has been scattered, and the one like the 
Son of man has appeared in the rise of the Con- 
federate States of America. 



Philosophy of our theory — The book of Revelation — 
The time of trouble — Convulsions in Europe — Fall 
of the United States — The present war — Five months 
— Our national fast — Battle of Manassas — Breaking 
the blockade — National resurrection — The millen- 
nium — The final judgment — Heaven, 

The great moral fact which underlies the the- 
ory we advocate in this work is, that as Satan 
has been the god of this world, the prince of the 
power of the air, the controlling spirit in human 
government, he is to be conquered on that field, 
as well as on every other, by the Divine Re- 
deemer. Our Saviour had reference, as we 
believe, to this victory, when he rejoiced in 
spirit on seeing Satan fall as lightning from 
heaven. When this grand achievement is made, 
the prophetic vision is unsealed. The scene 
which introduces the national, or political proph- 
ecies of the book of Revelation is, we believe, 
simply a duplicate, under different symbols, of 
the Ancient of days, and the one like the Son 


of man. The latter is here presented as the 
Lamb having seven horns and seven eyes, or the 
Saviour revealed in civil government. That is 
the government under which we live. The time 
of trouble, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, 
has, we believe, come, when every one, i. e., 
every tribe of our Israel, written in the book, 
shall be delivered, and included in the final king- 
dom. There is, and will be, a mighty shaking 
of the heaven and the earth. The conflict will 
go on until, in Europe and America, despotism 
is effectually diminished, or overthrown, and 
oppressed nationalities shall be liberated from 
their thraldom. We would not speak with the 
confidence of a prophet ; but if we have ascer- 
tained our present stand-point, we think it not 
irrational that some indications should be fur- 
nished, as to the general events of the future. 
We can but believe that very soon terrible con- 
vulsions will occur in Europe, in which despo- 
tism, though it may be at first triumphant, will 
be defeated, in the deliverance of nations now 

The time of trouble will, we believe, continue 
in the New World, until the rising despotism of 
the North shall be broken in pieces, and the 
slain shepherds, or border States, shall live again. 


We understand this to be meant by the division 
of " the great city" into " three parts," (Bev. 
xvi. 19,) though we cannot now give the reasons 
for that opinion. How long it will be before 
this shall occur, we cannot tell. From intima- 
tions which we have, as we think, gathered in 
the prophecies, it will occur in a very few years. 
The Confederate States will take part in the con- 
flict which will overthrow that government. We 
cannot believe, however, that actual war will exist 
during all the intervening time. The present war 
is, as we doubt not, alluded to in many of the 
prophecies, especially in Joel ii., and in the fifth 
trumpet, Kev. ix. The imagery employed is, in 
both cases, the same, and in both is noted the 
reflex influence of the war, and those engaged in 
pushing it forward. We understand the "tor- 
ment," which " was as the torment of a scorpion 
when it stingeth a man," as describing the 
furious, unparalleled war spirit which has pre- 
vailed in the Northern States. This is said to 
continue five months. 

We understand the book of Revelation, as 
the prophecies generally, to h«ve an accommo- 
dated meaning, and a fn^, final application. The 
prophetic periods have also a symbolic, and 
Snally, a literal meaning. And we think we 


have found events corresponding to the literal 
periods. The period given may, however, accord 
with a different reckoning of time from ours, or 
may embrace a more general length of time than 
that indicated. This idea of general, rather 
than specific periods, is entertained by some 
writers on prophecy. 

Five months, as indicating the continuance of 
the war spirit in the North, would literally em- 
brace the period intervening between the middle 
of April and the middle of September. About 
the latter period, it was found so difficult to 
procure soldiers for the Northern armies, that 
the system of drafting was urged as a matter of 
necessity. The policy seemed to be generally 
advocated by the war journals of the North, of 
attacking the Atlantic and Gulf States by sea, 
while maintaining a defensive position on land, 
as the only hope of success in the war. On the 
26th of September was published in Richmond, 
and on yesterday, 29th, in Nashville, this intelli- 
gence : " The war feeling in the North seems to 
have generally subsided." If this be true, and 
we believe it is, the fact may have an important 
bearing on the future of the war. 

It would not necessarily follow, from this effect- 
ual waning of the war spirit, preparatory to its 


final extinction, that the actual fighting woujd 
immediately cease. It may be five months, or 
even more, from the time that actual hostilities 
commenced, after the mighty uprising of the 
North, just alluded to, and their actual cessa- 
tion. The war is a " blast of the terrible ones 
against the wall," which wall is not, however, 
unshaken. It is promised, in application, as we 
believe, to this very case, that the Lord will go 
with the whirlwinds of the South, as he mani- 
festly has done, and will do, to the end. 

The exhortation in Joel, on the occurrence of 
this war is, that we should " blow the trumpet 
in Zion, sanctify a fast, call a solemn assembly." 
The fast was proclaimed, and proved to be the 
most solemn and universally observed one of 
modern times. Throughout all these States, 
men in the church and out of it, religious and 
irreligious, forsook their secular employments to 
mingle in the solemn public worship of Almighty 
God. That day is referred to, as we believe, in 
Zech. iii. 9 : " For behold the stone that I have 
laid before Joshua; upon one stone shall be 
seven eyes : behold, I will engrave the graving 
thereof, saith the Lord of hosts, and I will 
remove the iniquity of that land in one day." 

That the stone is an emblem of a nationality 


is plain, from the mention of " that land." The 
seven eyes are in allusion to the seven original 
States, so often mentioned in these prophecies. 
The removal, not of individual, but of national 
sins, is promised : " I will remove the iniquity 
of that land." This is to be done on a certain 
day, surely j a day of national humiliation and 
prayer. The verse was read on our national fast 
day, June 13th, and applied to that day. We 
still believe that the application was just. Does 
not the bestowment upon us of so many national 
blessings indicate this removal of national 
iniquity ? 

The result is further stated in Joel ii. 18 : 
" Then will the Lord be jealous for his land, and 
pity his people. Yea, the Lord will answer and 
say unto his people, Behold, I will send you 
corn, and wine, and oil, and ye shall be satisfied 
therewith : and I will no more make you a re- 
proach among the heathen." Has not the Lord 
pitied us ? Has he not filled our land with 
plenty ? Have we not heretofore been the 
reproach of the heathen, or as Ezekiel expressed 
it, " taken up in the lips of talkers" ? The term 
heathen is used, as we think, in many places, of 
the tribes or States of Israel rejected. 

"But I will remove far off from you the 


Northern army, and will drive him into a land 
harren and desolate, with his face toward the 
east sea, and his hinder part toward the utmost 
sea, and his stink shall come up, and his ill savour 
shall come up, because he hath done (or as the 
margin reads, magnified to do) great things." 

When did an army "magnify to do" such 
"great things" as did the Northern army? Is 
the fact that so many bodies were left unburied 
on the various battle-fields of the present strug- 
gle, loading the atmosphere with pestilential 
stench, no illustration of this passage ? The 
desolate state of the land is explained by the 
phrase used by Isaiah : " There shall be a great 
forsaking in the midst of the land." 

If the theory we advocate be correct, then 
there is a general opening of the prophetic 
vision at the rise of the final kingdom. The 
Lamb with the seven horns opens the seals which, 
as is stated in Dan. viii. 26; xii. 4, 9, could not be 
opened till the time of the end, or the expiration 
of the prophetic periods. If this be so, then 
the prophecies generally are more applicable to 
these and succeeding- times, than to those in which 
they were written. 

The glorious Psalms too, many of which are 
allowed on all hands to be prophetic, contain 


very much that is more fully applicable to the 
final Zion of God, than to the literal old type. 
Take for example the 48th Psalm. Was this 
exclusively, or even mainly, applicable to the 
literal Jerusalem ? Of this it was predicted that 
it should be " ploughed as a field/' and " become 
heaps." See Mich. iii. 12. Of the one in this 
Paslm it is said, " God will establish it for ever." 
This is just what is stated as to the perpetuity 
of the stone kingdom as the final Zion. 

We invite attention to verses 3, 6. This pas- 
sage was read on the 13th day of June last, and 
the opinion was then expressed that it would he 
fulfilled during the session of the Northern Con- 
gress, to assemble on the fourth of the succeed- 
ing month. How was it fulfilled, " For, lo, the 
kings " (or rulers, or lawgivers, see Psa. ii. 2,) 
" were assembled, they passed by together," or 
went beyond the place of their assembling. 
" They saw it, and so they marvelled,"— they saw 
something for which they were not prepared, 
expecting victory but witnessing overwhelmning 
defeat. " They were troubled and hasted away. 
Fear took hold upon them there " — i. e., at the 
place to which they went when they passed 
by together— "and pain as of a woman in travail " 
—extreme terror and dread producing intense de- 


sire to hasten away. We believe this to be the 
terrible route of Manassas Plains, which was the 
more memorable as it included so many of the 
rulers and chief men of the North. Thus, in 
almost all the descriptions of that terrible scene, 
you have the flight of these same Congressmen 
alluded to, together with their great anxiety 
to hasten away. 

" Thou breakest the ships of Tarshish" (which 
name may be appropriately used of any naval 
power) " with an east wind." This we believed 
then, and believe now, to have reference to the 
breaking of our blockade by a power or influence 
from the east, as of England and France. When 
this war shall have become history, we believe 
that the two decisive points in it will be, the bat- 
tle of Manassas Plains and the breaking of the 
blockade. The great battle of the struggle has 
been fought, and the other decisive event will 
occur in due time. 

"As we have heard, so have we seen in the city 
of the Lord of hosts, in the city of our God." 
Just as we have heard and read of God's deal- 
ings with his ancient Zion, so have we seen in its 
final antitype. Such are precisely the reflec- 
tions and expressions of very many of our peo- 
ple now. There are comparatively few intelli- 


gent and thoughtful men in the Confederate 
States, who do not acknowledge the hand of 
God in the battles that have been fought, and 
especially in that of Manassas Plains. And 
when the blockade shall have been broken by a 
power from the east, and the war terminated, as 
we believe it will be, without the sorrows of a 
terrible political redemption, the impression as to 
Divine interposition will be deeper and more all- 
pervading. And whether we entertain any 
special views as to the destiny of the new nation- 
ality or not, we should, as a people, gratefully ac- 
knowledge the hand of God and devote ourselves 
to his service. "The Lord hath done great 
things for us, whereof we are glad." 

When this time of trouble shall result in the 
downfall of overshadowing despotisms, and the 
resurrection of oppressed States and nationalities, 
we believe that the chaining of Satan as the 
ruling power in human despotism, in connection 
with the diminution of his power over mankind 
generally, will occur when civil liberty and pure 
Christianity will go abroad over the earth. Dur- 
ing the whole millennial period of glorious 
Christian triumph, the new nationality, as the 
highest ideal of human government and as under 
the control of the Saviour of the world, will stand 


central and preeminent among the nations of the 
earth. The King with many crowns, or the 
Saviour revealed in human civil government, 
will rule the nations with a "rod of iron," 
which signifies, we believe, the commerce of the 
world. He smites the nations with a sword, but 
one that " proceeds out of his mouth" — the doc- 
trine of the purest civil and religious liberty, 
preached in his precepts and illustrated by his 

In illustration of these items, we have the 
fact that the new nationality contains, or sur- 
rounds the fountain-head of human commerce, 
and that it possesses, as to outline, at least, the 
highest ideal of human government. When the 
thousand years of the peaceful millennial reign 
shall be over, a short decisive conflict will ensue 
— after which the personal resurrection and final 
judgment. The earth will be renewed by fire : 
there will be no more sea. Then the stone cut 
of the mountain shall become a great mountain 
and fill the whole earth. The confederate 
" nations of them that are saved " shall dwell 
on the renewed earth, under the direct reign of 
God for ever. There shall be no more curse nor 
" death,nor sorrow, nor crying." There shall be 
fullness of joy and pleasures for evermore. 


We solemnly believe that the great prophetic 
periods have closed : the mystery is finished and 
the vision of prophecy is unsealed. The final 
kingdom has arisen, and the Divine Kedeemer 
has come to reign. " Cry out thou inhabitant of 
Zion, for great is the Holy One in the midst of